Rabu, 12 Oktober 2016

THE QUIZ OF ORGANIZATION AND COMPUTERS ARCHITECTURE FOR 2KA01 & 2KA15 CLASS


Write your name and your ID Students (NPM) and write your class too

answer the questions below by choosing three questions that you think is easy

1. What Characteristic traits of first and second generation computers and explain that?

2. What a parts contained in CPU and Explain their function?

3. Mentioned 10 parts contained in Motherboard and explain their function?

4. Mention of operating system on the computer and explain their respective strengths?

5. What the difference of RAM with ROM and Give examples of Proccess?

answer the questions and work directly on the comments page of this blog.

thank you

happy Quiz

104 komentar:

  1. Komentar ini telah dihapus oleh pengarang.

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  2. Dilano satria guci
    2ka01
    11115905

    2. A. Cpu/processor : where's the processing is processed by alu, cu, and cache memory
    B. Ram : place to store data impermanently, needed for processing
    C. Psu : supplying power to all hardware
    D. HDD : place where data permanently store
    E. Cd rom : to burn a disk and read data from it
    F. Vga (expansion) : to process the visual data and output it to monitor
    G. Sound card (expansion): to process sound data and output it to speaker
    H. Heatsink/fan : to release the heat from components
    I. Motherboard : place to attach all components so it can connected and do thing as one piece
    J. Modem/lan card (expansion): to help the computer to connect to another computer and make a connection to talk to each other

    5. Ram : store data impermanently, so after the loss of power the data will be erased, mainly used to store data for processed by processor ex : ddr1 to ddr4, gddr for graphic use
    Rom : another type of memory that store the data permanently, mainly used for storing bios and bios setting ex : emmc, eufi, etc

    1. First gen : big/massive, slow, the use of vacuum tube, connected by wire and analog data processing

    Second gen : not too big, but still bigger than gen 3 computer, uses of transistor, but not yet use an integrated ic, more fast than gen 1

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  3. 2. Random Access Memory is also known as the computer’s system memory. It needs power to be read; hence, when a computer turns off, the memory is lost.







    Hard Disk Drive



    Hard disk drive is the main storage device of a computer. It uses uses disks that are made of aluminum or glass to store information. Hard drives are measured in gigabytes.  Sometimes a special cache is used for quick retrieval of often-used information (such as web pages).







    Microprocessor



    Microprocessor functions as the central processing unit of the computer which provides computation control. Its speed is measured in megahertz. It holds info about the operating system of the computer. The microprocessor is one type of ultra-large-scale integrated circuit that consists of extremely tiny components formed on a single, thin, flat piece of material known as a semiconductor.







    CD-ROM



    Compact Disk Read-Only Memory is collectively known as CD ROM. With the help of laser optics technology, CD ROM reads information from a CD. However, it is not capable of writing informatioin on the CD.







    Floppy Disk Drive



    Floppy disk drive helps store and read data on a removable floppy disk.







    Video Card



    Video Card is an expansion card that is connected to the motherboard. It  serves as the visual link between the user and its computer, allowing the user to view and manage the computer’s software data.







    LAN Card



    A LAN Card or Network Interface Card is also an expansion card. Also known as the modem, it helps the computer to connect to another computer on a Network.





    4. Motherboard Basics, Processor Socket, Processor Socket, Power Connectors, Memory Slots, Video Card Slot, Expansion Slots, IDE and SATA Ports, BIOS Chip and Battery, Northbridge and Southbridge.

    5. A ROM chip is non-volatile storage and does not require a constant source of power to retain information stored on it. When power is lost or turned off, a ROM chip will keep the information stored on it. In contrast, a RAMchip is volatile and requires a constant source of power to retain information.

    BalasHapus
  4. Ilham aminudin
    13115267
    2ka01
    2. KOMPONEN CPU
    Motherbord
    = sumber semua komponen di cpu
    Procesor = otak suatu komputer
    Ram
    = memori
    Hardisk
    = tempat penyimpanan
    Vga
    = graphic card
    cd-rom
    = tempat pemutar cd
    network interface card
    sound card
    = tempat komponen suara
    power suply
    = tempat menyimpan berapa banyak energi yang digunakan
    casing
    = tempat semua komponen disimpan

    5. Data in RAM is not permanently written. When you power off your computer the data stored in RAM is deleted. ROM is a type of non- volatile memory. Data in ROM is permanently written and is not erased when you power off your computer

    4. Windows 10
    -Improvement for desktop user
    -one drive changes
    -the redesign touch interface
    -





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  5. 2. Casing, is the outer part of CPU that functions to cover and protect from dirt, dust, etc.
    Processor, a small chip that functions as a thinker or processor all the commands that are accepted by CPU.
    RAM, is a graphic card which functions to store data that has been processed by the processor.
    VGA, is a component which functions to process graphics data and display it to the monitor.
    HDD, it functions as the storage of all of the datas in computer.

    3. CD-ROM, it functions to read any data that has been burnt into CD/DVD.
    HDD, it functions as the storage of all of the datas in computer.
    RAM, is a graphic card which functions to store data that has been processed by the processor.
    Processor, a small chip that functions as a thinker or processor all the commands that are accepted by CPU.
    I/O ports, his is located in the rear panel of the CPU, this use to connect the outside hardware or peripherals of the computer.
    BIOS, is a set of a program stored in CMOS IC, use to preserve the BIOS configuration of the computer.
    Sound card, it functions to receive digital signals from the computer then produce it into sonic signals.
    VGA, is a component which functions to process graphics data and display it to the monitor.
    PCI ports, slot for older expansion cards such as sound cards, network cards, connector cards.
    Northbridge, chipset that allows the CPU to communicate with the RAM and graphics card.

    4. MAC OS X, it's stable, reliable and highly secure, as few virus designers bother to target it.
    Linux, these differences can make Linux difficult to install and support, but it is compatible with most existing hardware platforms. The open source nature of Linux means that it is possible for users to write their own fixes, or workarounds, for problems arising with software titles.
    Windows 7, according to PC World, Windows 7 offers significant improvements on its predecessor, Windows Vista and includes a completely reworked system tray.

    BalasHapus
  6. 2. CPU (Central Processing Unit), adalah perangkat terpenting dalamsebuah komputer yang memiliki peranan sebagai pengolah data atau pusat pemrosesan data dari sebuah computer.Di dalam CPU terdapat komponen-kompenen yang terhubung satu sama lain. Adapun komponen tersebut adalah :

    1. Casing

    Casing adalah bagian terluar dari CPU. Berfungsi untuk menutupi dan melindungi komponen-komponen lain dari kotoran debu selain itu juga berfungsi sebagai tempat dudukan komponen lain seperti motherboard,CD-ROM drive, harddisk, dan floppy drive dll.

    2. Processor

    Prosessor Adalah Otak Dari Semua Proses Yang Ada Di Komputer. Semakin tinggi kecepatan prosessor maka, semakin cepat komputer dalam memproses berbagai macam data.

    3. RAM

    RAM (Random Access Memory). Berfungsi menampung data yang telah terproses oleh processor.
    Juga Berfungsi Menyimpan Data Sementara Selama Komputer Dalam Keadaan Hidup.
    Satuan Memori Biasanya Menggunakan Byte,Kapasitas Memori Yang Ada Di Pasaran Yaitu :
    64 Mb,128 Mb,256 Mb,512 Mb,1 GB,2 GBkomputern 8 GB

    4. VGA Card

    VGA( Video Graphic Editor), adalah sebuah komponen yg berfungsi untuk mengolah data grafis dan menampilkannya ke monitor.

    5. Hardisk

    Harddisk adalah tempat penyimpanan data yang ada di dalam komputer. Semakin besar kapasitas harddisk, semakin bayak pula data-data yang dapat disimpan. Satuan kapsitas harddisk adalah byte. Saat ini kapasitas harddisk dopasaran bervariasi, mulai dari 250 GB, 500 GB, 1 Tera, hingga 3 Tera.

    6. Motherboard

    Motherboard merupakan papan sirkuit tempat penghubung dari semua komponen yg ada di dalam CPU . fungsinya untuk untuk menghubungkan setiap komponen-komponen komputer tersebut agar bisa saling berkomunikasi satu sama lain.

    7. Sound Card

    sound card Fungsinya adalah memerima sinyal digital dari komputer dan menjadi gelombang dan menghasilkan sinyal sonic

    8. Optical Disk Drive

    Optical Disk Drive atau sering disebut dengan cd/dvd room piranti yang digunakan untuk membaca dan menullis CD/DVD. Yang termasuk kedalam optical drive adalah : CD-ROM drive, CD-RW drive, DVD-ROM drive, dan DVD-RW drive.

    9. Power Suply

    Power supply merupakan bagian dari sistem komputer yang berfungsi untuk memberikan daya (sumber arus listrik) pada komponen-komponen komputer.
    Power supply dibedakan atas daya yang dimiliki, seperti: 300 watt, 380 watt, 400 watt, 450 watt, 500 watt, 600 watt, dan berkembangan mengikuti perkembangan teknologi komputer

    BalasHapus
    Balasan
    1. 3. 5. 1. Konektor Power
      Konektor power adalah bagian darimotherboar berupa pin yg menyambungkan motherboard dgn power supply di casing komputer. Jika anda menggunakan Motherboard jenis AT, maka casing yg dibutuhkan adalah jenis AT juga. Konektor power jenis AT terdiri dari dua bagian, di mana dua kabel dari power supply dapat menancap di dalamnya. Pada Motherboard jenis ATX, kabel power supply menyatu dalam satu header yg utuh, jika anda ingin memasangnya, anda tinggal menancapkannya di motherboard.

      Kabel ini terdiri dari dua kolom cocok dgn pin di motherboard yg terdiri atas dua larik pin. Banyak sekali Motherboard yang sudah meyediakan dua jenis konektor power, AT dan ATX. Biasanya motherboard paling baru sudah bertipe ATX.





      2. Socket atau Slot Procesor
      Terdapat beberapa jenis colokan untuk menancapkan procesor Anda. Model paling lama yaitu ZIF yang merupakan singkatan dari Zero Insertion Force Socket 7 atau yang lebih popular dgn istilah Socket 7. Socket ini kompatibel utk procesor yang dibuat oleh Intel, AMD, atau Cyrix yang umumnya digunakan untuk procesor model lama (sampai dgn generasi 233 MHz).

      Selain itu, Ada lagi socket yg disebut dengan Socket 370. Socket ini hampir mirip dengan Socket 7 tapi jumlah pinnya adalah 370 yang mana socket jenis ini sangat cocok dengan processor buatan Intel.

      Sementara AMD yang menjadi saingan Intel menamai sendiri socketnya dgn istilah Socket A, di mana jumlah pinnya juga berbeda dgn socket 370. Istilah A dipakai AMD dengan tujuan untuk menunjuk brand procesor Athlon.

      3. North bridge controller
      VIA VT8751A yg memberikan interface prsessor dgn frekuensi 533/400MHz, yg memberi dukungan intel Hypertheading Tecnologi, interface sistem memori yg beropersi pada 266MHz, & interface AGP 1.5V yg memberi dukungan spesifikasinya AGP 2.0 termasuk juga write protocol dengan kecepatan 4X.


      4. Socket Memori
      Bagian ke 4 dari komponen Motherboard adalah Socket Memori, Ada dua jenis socket memori yang sekarang beredar dipasaran. Ada juga Socket terbaru dan terupdate untuk Rambus DRAM, namun sayangnya belum bnayak orang yang menggunakannya. Adapun Socket lama yang masih digunakan sampai sekarang adalah SIMM. Socket ini terdiri dari 72 pin modul. Socket yg kedua mempunyai 168 pin modul, yg di desain satu arah. Sehingga Anda tidak mungkin salah memasangnya, karena galur di motherboard telah disesuaikan dgn socket memori kategori DIMM.

      5. Konektor Floppy dan IDE
      Konektor Floppy dan IDE adalah konektor yang menghubungkan motherboard dgn perangkat penyimpanan komputer seperti floppy disk dan harddisk. Konektor IDE dalam motherboard umumnya terdiri dari dua, yaitu primary IDE dan secondary IDE.

      6. AGP 4X slot
      Slot port penyelerasi gambar ini mendukung Kartu Grafis mode 3.3V/1.5V AGP 4X untuk aplikasi grafis 3D.

      7. South Bridge Controller
      Peripheral kontroler terintegrasi VIA VT8235 yg mendukung berbagai I/O fungsi termasuk juga 2-channel ATA/133 bus master IDE controller, hingga 6 port USB 2.0, interface LCP super I/O, interface AC’97 & PCI 2.2

      8. Standby Power LED
      Komponen Motherboard selanjutnya adakah LAMPU (LED) Lampu ini menyala apabila terdapat standby power di motherboard. Selain itu, LED ini bertindak juga sebagai reminder (pengingat) utk mematikan sistem power sebelum menghidupkan atau mematikan mesin.

      9. PCI slots
      Pegembangan slot PCI 2.2 32-bit in9i mensopport bus master PCI cart seperti SCSI atau cart LAN dgn keluaran maksimum 133MB/s.

      10. PS/2 Mouse Port
      Konektor hijau 6 pin ini adalah untuk mouse.

      11. Port Paralel dan Serial
      Pada Motherboard jenis AT, port serial dan paralel tidak menyatu dalam satu motherboard tapi disambungkandengan menggunakan kabel. Jadi, di motherboard tersedia pin utk menancapkan kabel. Fungsi port paralel bermacam-macam, diantaranya adalah menyambungkan komputer dengan perangkat keras seperti, scanner, sampai dgn menghubungkan komputer dengan periferal tertentu yg didesain menggunakan koneksi port paralel.

      Hapus
    2. 5. 5. Memori adalah merupakan media penyimpan pada komputer. Terdapat 2 jenis Memori dalam dunia komputer yaitu ROM dan RAM, adapun perbedaannya adalah seperti berikut :

      1. Read Only Memory (ROM), yaitu memori yang hanya bisa dibaca saja, tidak dapat dirubah dan dihapus dan sudah diisi oleh pabrik pembuat komputer. Isi ROM diperlukan pada saat komputer dihidupkan. Perintah yang ada pada ROM sebagian akan dipindahkan ke RAM. Perintah yang ada di ROM antara lain adalah perintah untuk membaca sistem operasi dari disk, perintah untuk mencek semua peralatan yang ada di unit sistem dan perintah untuk menampilkan pesan di layar. Isi ROM tidak akan hilang meskipun tidak ada aliran listrik. Tapi pada saat sekarang ini ROM telah mengalami perkembangan dan banyak macamnya, diantaranya :

      PROM (Programable ROM), yaitu ROM yang bisa kita program kembali dengan catatan hanya boleh satu kali perubahan setelah itu tidak dapat lagi diprogram.
      RPROM (Re-Programable ROM), merupakan perkembangan dari versi PROM dimana kita dapat melakukan perubahan berulangkali sesuai dengan yang diinginkan.
      EPROM (Erasable Program ROM), merupakan ROM yangdapat kita hapus dan program kembali, tapi cara penghapusannya dengan menggunakan sinar ultraviolet.
      EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Program ROM), perkembangan mutakhir dari ROM dimana kita dapat mengubahdan menghapus program ROM dengan menggunakan teknikelektrik. EEPROM ini merupakan jenis yang paling banyak digunakan saat ini.
      2. Random Access Memori (RAM), dari namanya kita dapat artikan bahwa RAM adalah memori yang dapat diakses secara random. RAM berfungsi untuk menyimpan program yang kita olah untuk sementara waktu (power on) jika komputer kita matikan, maka seluruh data yang tersimpan dalam RAM akan hilang. Tujuan dari RAM ini adalah mempercepat pemroses data pada komputer. Agar data yang kita buat tidak dapat hilang pada saat komputer dimatikan, maka diperlukan media penyimpanan eksternal, seperti Disket, Harddisk, flash disk, PCMCIA card dan lain-lain.

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    3. Komentar ini telah dihapus oleh pengarang.

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    4. Cindy Oktavia Wulandara
      2KA01
      11115510
      cindyow4@gmail.com

      Hapus
  7. 1. Perbedaan ram dan rom
    RAM entah itu berupa data, program yang sedang berjalan akan hilang dengan sendirinya, ketika komputer dimatikan atau dalam keadaan tidak nyala.
    Rom
    ROM dapat menyimpan data walaupun tidak membutuhkan daya atau ketika komputer sedang tidak menyala.
    Contohnya adalah ROM BIOS yang berisi tentang program dasar sistem komputer.

    2. Bagian dari cpu


    1. Motherboard (papan utama)

    Motherboard/mainboard adalah komponen utama yang membangun sebuah komputer. Berbentuk papan persegi dengan slot-slot untuk memasukkan komponen-komponen lain. Fungsinya untuk menghubungkan seluruh komponen PC.
    2. Central Processing Unit (CPU)


    Biasa juga kita kenal sebagai “processor” atau “otak” dari komputer. Fungsi dari CPU ini adalah memproses dan mengolah semua kalkulasi dan perintah-perintah yang membuat komputer dapat dioperasikan.
    3. Random Access Memory (RAM)

    RAM berfungsi sebagai tempat transit data sementara untuk operasi-operasi yang tengah dijalankan oleh RAM.
    4. Video Graphic Array (VGA)

    VGA card atau kartu grafis berfungsi sebagai penghubung yang memungkinkan pengiriman data-data grafis antara PC dan perangkat display seperti monitor atau proyektor.
    5. Hard Disk Drive(HDD)

    Hard-disk berfungsi sebagai tempat penyimpanan data utama dalam sebuah sistem komputer.
    6. Optical Disc Drive

    Optical drive biasa juga dikenal dengan nama CD Drive, DVD Drive atau ODD. Fungsi dari perangkat ini adalah untuk membaca dan juga menyimpan data dari dan ke media cakram optik seperti CD , DVD, atau Blu-Ray Disc.
    7. Power Supply Unit (PSU)

    Power Supply berfungsi sebagai pengkonversi dan penyalur energi listrik dari outlet sumber (misalnya listrik PLN)
    8. Monitor

    Disebut juga screen atau display. Fungsi dari layar monitor adalah untuk menampilkan video dan informasi grafis yang dihasilkan dari komputer melalui alat yang disebut kartu grafis (VGA Card).
    9. Keyboard dan Mouse

    Keyboard dan mouse berfungsi sebagai alat input untuk memasukkan perintah teks, karakter, atau menggerakkan objek pada antarmuka grafis untuk diproses oleh komputer.
    10. Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS)

    Sering disebut juga sebagai baterai cadangan, fungsi utama UPS adalah menyimpan dan menyediakan cadangan listrik yang akan digunakan ketika sumber listrik utama padam.

    3.Bagian dari motherboard
    1. Port Firewire : Mendukung 800MB/s untuk transfer kecepatan tinggi, untuk kamera video eksternal dan disk drive eksternal.
    2. PCI x1 : Untuk menempatkan aksesoris seperti adapter nirkabel, TV tunner dan sebagainya.
    3. PCI Express x16 : Untuk menempatkan kartu grafik/VGA card agar dapat  menghasilkan output yang berkualitas.
    4. Port Audio : Untuk menghubungkan speaker.
    5. Socket Processor : Tempat terpasangnya processor/CPU (Central Processing Unit) yang sering disebut dengan otak dari komputer.
    6. Fan Headers : Untuk memberikan daya pada kipas yang terpasang pada heatsink processor dan sebagai penyedia tegangan untuk kipas processor.
    7. Socket RAM/Slot Memory : Untuk menempatkan RAM/memasang RAM.
    8. Socket ATX Power : Untuk menghubungkan konektor power dari power supply dengan motherboard.
    9. Serial ATA (SATA) : Untuk menghubungkan Disk Drive seperti harddisk atau optical drive jenis SATA.
    10. Header USB/Slot USB : Untuk menghubungkan Front USB dengan Motherboard
    11. Slot IDE : Untuk menghubungkan Harddisk atau Optical Drive seperti CD ROM, DVD dan sebagainya yang bertipe ATA dengan motherboard.
    12. Slot PCI : Slot ekspansi dimana berbagai kartu plug in dapat dipasang beberapa kartu ekspansi seperti modem, kartu jaringan dan lain-lain.
    13. Slot AGP : Untuk menempatkan kartu grafik/VGA Card yang berjenis AGP.
    14. BIOS : Memori permanen tempat tersimpannya data penanggalan serta pengaturan dari komponen komputer.
    15. Chipset : Untuk mengontrol penggunaan daya dan transfer dapat pada socket maupun port yang terpasang pada motherboard.
    16. CMOS Baterai : Untuk mempertahankan memori dari chip CMOS yang berisi hal-hal seperti tanggal, waktu, jenis perangkat keras dan pengaturan lainnya khusus untuk komputer.

    BalasHapus
  8. Nama: Ihsan Muafa L
    NPM : 13115237

    BalasHapus
    Balasan
    1. Jawaban no 4 seharusnya no 3. Sorry typo. Ty

      Hapus
  9. aria samudera elhamidy
    10115962



    no 3. bagian motherboard ?
    1. Slot PCI Express x16, merupakan slot khusus yang bisa dipasangi kartu VGA generasi terbaru.

    2. Slot PCI Express x1, merupakan slot untuk memasang periferal (kartu atau card) lainnya selain kartu VGA.

    3. slot AGP, merupaka slot khusus untuk memasang kartu VGA generasi sebelum adanya slot PCI Express.

    4. Slot PCI, merupakan slot umum yang biasa digunakan untu memasang kartu atau card dengan kecepatan di bawah slot AGP dan PCI Express.

    5 bIOS (Basic Input-Ouput System). Merupakan program kecil yang dimasukkan ke dalam IC ROM atau Flash yang digunakan untuk menyimpan konfigurasi dari sebuah motherboard.

    6.Baterai CMOS, baterai khusus untuk memberikan daya pada BIOS.

    7. Port SATA, merupakan antarmuka untuk media penyimpanan generasi terbaru. Port SATA bisa digunakan untuk menghubungkan Hard Disk dengan sistem komputer.

    8. Port IDE, merupakan antarmuka media penyimpanan sebelum generasi SATA.

    9.. Port Floppy Disk, digunakan untuk menghubungkan mediaremovable atau media penyimpanan yang bisa dicopot yaitu Disket atau Floppy Disk.

    10. Port Power, yaitu port untuk memberikan daya kepada sistem komputer.

    12. Back Panel, merupak


    no 4 . jenis operting system?
    linux : kelebihannya opensource, free, lebih kebal terhadap virus
    windows : lebih fleksibel dengan user karna lebih mudah digunakan, dan banyak software yg lebuh support
    mac os : cepar booting dan tampilan elegan
    no 5 perbedaan ram dan rom ?
    ram dapat dihapus contohnta adalah ram komputer atau proses bermain game
    rom adalah memori yg tidak dapat dihapus
    contoh prosesnya adalah bios yg digunakan dalam motherboard

    BalasHapus
  10. Nama : Siti Alifah Nurjanah
    npm : 16115596

    3.
    A. Socket Prosessor merupakan tempat dimana prosessor terpasang.
    B. BIOS CHIP sebagai interface antar hardware dengan OS
    c. MEMORY SLOTS sebagai tempat install RAM
    d. Expansion slots sebagai tempat install perangkat tambahan
    E. Heatsink : mendinginkan chip/ prosesor
    F. Chipset : penguhubung prosesor dengan komponen eksternal dan buses
    G. Cmos battery : menyimpan konfigurasi komputer, waktu, dll
    H. Vga slots : menginstall komponen graphic card
    I. IDE : penghubung CD-rom ke motherboard
    J. Power connector : penghubung powersupply ke mother board

    2.
    A. Motherboard : tempat berbagai komponen pada pc saling terhubung
    B. RAM : sebuah tipe penyimpanan komputer yang isinya dapat diakses dalam waktu yang tetap tidak memperdulikan letak data tersebut dalam memori.
    C. VGA : standar tampilan analog pada pc
    D. Cd-rom : penyimpan data
    E. LAN CARD : Jembatan penguhubung antara pc dengan koneksi jaringan internet
    F. Soundcard : mengeluarkan suara
    G. Power supply : sumber daya
    H. Casing : pelindung
    I. Harddisk : penyimpan data
    J. Prosesor : untuk melaksanakan perintah dari komputer

    1.
    Komputer Generasi I (1940-1956)

    Komputer generasi pertama mempunyai ciri-ciri sebagai berikut :
    • Komponen yang dipergunakannya adalah tabung hampa udara (Vacum tube) untuk sirkuitnya.
    • Program hanya dapat dibuat dengan bahasa mesin : Assembler.
    • Ukuran fisik komputer besar, memerlukan ruangan yang luas.
    • Cepat panas.
    • Proses kurang cepat.
    • Kapasitas penyimpanan kecil.
    • Memerlukan dya listrik yang besar.
    • Orientasi pada aplikasi bisnis.
    • Silinder magnetic untuk penyimpanan data.

    Contoh computer generasi I :
    ENIAC
    Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC) merupakan generasi pertama komputer digital elektronik yang digunakan untuk kebutuhan umum. Proposal ENIAC dirancang oada tahun 1942, dan mulai dibuat pada tahun 1943 oleh Dr. John W. Mauchly dan John Presper Eckert di Moore School of Electrical Engineering (University of Pennsylvania) dan baru selesai pada tahun 1946.

    Komputer generasi kedua ditandai dengan ciri-ciri sebagai berikut:
    • Menggunakan teknologi sirkuit berupa transistor dan diode untuk menggantikan tabung vakum.
    • Sudah menggunakan operasi bahasa pemrograman tingkat tinggi seperti FORTRAN dan COBOL.
    • Kapasitas memori utama dikembangkan dari Magnetic Core Storage.
    • Menggunakan simpanan luar berupa Magnetic Tape dan Magnetic Disk.
    • Kemampuan melakukan proses real time dan real-sharing.
    • Ukuran fisiknya sudah lebih kecil dibanding komputer generasi pertama.
    • Proses operasi sudah lebih cepat, yaitu jutaan operasi perdetik.
    • Kebutuhan daya listrik lebih kecil.
    • Orientasi program tidah hanya tertuju pada aplikasi bisnis, tetapi juga aplikasi teknik.
    Contoh computer pada generasi kedua : univac III

    BalasHapus
  11. 5.
    RAM random access memory berfungsi sebagai media penyimpanan sementara ketika kita menjalankan program komputer. Seperti local disk (:D)

    ROM read only memory berfungsi untuk melakukan penginstalan OS

    2.
    CPU
    RAM. Media penyimpanan data saat menjalankan program komputer
    PROCESSOR. Otak dari sebuh komputer dan mengeksekusi sebuah perintah
    HDD SDD. Tempat penyimpanan data secara permanen
    LAN CARD. untuk menghubingkan satu komputer dengan komputer lainnya
    CD DRIVE
    VGA. mengubah sinyal digital dari komputer menjadi tampilan grafis pada layar monitor
    MOTHERBOARD. Tempat pemasangan prosessor. Atau sebagai pusat kinerja komputer
    KABEL. Sebagai penghubung
    CASE. Melapisi bagian luar dan pelindung
    POWER SUPPLY. Mendistribusikan arus listrik ke seluruh komponen komputer.
    SOUND CARD. Pengolahan data berpa audio
    Cooler. Pendingin komponen komputer


    3.
    MOTHER BOARD
    Port Firewire berfungsi sebagai pendukung untuk kamera video eksternal dan disk drive
    Port Audio Berfungsi unntuk menghubungkan speaker.
    Socket Processor sebagai tempat terpasangnya processor/CPU komputer.
    Fan Headers berfungsi untuk memberikan daya pada kipas yang terpasang pada heatsink processor
    Socket RAM/Slot Memory berfungsi untuk menempatkan RAM/memasang RAM.
    Socket ATX Power berfungsi untuk menghubungkan konektor power dari power supply dengan motherboard.
    Serial ATA (SATA) berfungsi untuk menghubungkan Disk Drive seperti harddisk atau optical drive jenis SATA.
    Header USB/Slot USB berfungsi untuk menghubungkan Front USB dengan Motherboard
    Slot IDE berfungsi untuk menghubungkan Harddisk CD ROM, DVD dan sebagainya yang bertipe ATA.
    Slot PCI berfungsi untuk slot ekspansi dimana berbagai kartu plug in dapat dipasang beberapa kartu ekspansi seperti modem
    Slot AGP berfungsi untuk menempatkan kartu grafik/VGA Card
    BIOS berfungsi sebagai memori permanen tempat tersimpannya data dari komponen komputer.
    Chipset berfungsi untuk mengontrol penggunaan daya dan transfer dapat pada socket yang terhubung pada mb
    CMOS Baterai berfungsi untuk mempertahankan memori CMOS yang berisi tanggal, waktu, jenis perangkat keras dan pengaturan untuk Komputer

    Jasmine Putrifairuz
    2ka01. 13115531

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  12. tiara azalia putri
    2ka01



    2. processor merupakan inti/otak dari komputer berfungsi memproses perhitungan yang harus dilakukan oleh komputer.

    3. -BIOS,(Basic Input Output Sistem) merupakan sebuah chip yang berfungsi sebagai pengontrol perangkat keras yang terpasang pada komputer..
    -Battery CMOS (Complimentary Metal Oxide Semicondutor) merupakan sebuah battery kecil yang digunakan untuk memberi dan juga untuk menyimpan semua settingan yang ada pada BIOS
    -POWER CONNECTOR,menghubungkan motherboard dengan power supply agar motherboard bisa mendapatkan daya listrik.
    -I/0 PORT, Merupakan kumpulan port sebagai input maupun output data komputer. Terdiri dari USB, LAN, VGA, SERIAL, PS/2.
    – Northbridge / MCH,bertindak sebagai bagian dari chipset dalam mengatur pertukaran data yang bersifat internal, seperti pada video card, prosesor dan memori.
    – Southbridge,sebagai pengatur masalah eksternal yang berhubungan dengan I/O dan manusia.
    -CPU SOCKET, tempat dimana prosesor dipasang
    -Slot AGP, tempat untuk memasang AGP
    -Konektor IDE (PRIMARY IDE), berfungsi menghubungkan motherboard dengan primary master drive dan piranti secondary master.
    -Konektor IDE (SECONDARY IDE), Berfungsi menghubungkan piranti-piranti untuk slave seperti CDROM dan harddisk slave.

    - generasi pertama:
    Sirkuit menggunakan vacum tube atau tabung hampa udara.
    Memerlukan daya listrik yang sangat besat.
    Banyak mengeluarkan panas sehingga butuh alatpendingin (AC) yang banyak.
    Prosesnya relatif lambat.
    Ukurannya fisik sangat besar sehingga memerlukan ruangan/tempat yang luas.

    -generasi kedua:
    Sirkuitnya menggunakan transistor sebagai penguat sinyal
    Program dibuat dengan bahasa tingkat tinggi seperti FORTRAN dan COBOL
    Kapasitas memori sudah cukup besar dengan pengembangan magnetic core storage
    Menggunakan simpanan luar magnetic tape dan magnetic disk yang berbentuk removable disk
    Mempunyai kemampuan proses real time dan time sharing

    BalasHapus
  13. Kurniawan Haqqi Purnomo
    13115770
    2KA01
    1.First generation computer were based on vacum tubes, the operating system is very slow, using machine language for programming.
    Second generation computer were used transistors, using assembly language for programming, more smaller than first generation.

    2.Part of cpu
    RAM : used for saving temporal data.
    Hardisk : the main memory of computer.
    Proccessor : used for central processing of computer
    Motherboard  : the computer’s circuit board where all the ‘inside parts’ are connected.
    LAN card : used for help connection to network.

    5.Different RAM and ROM
     ROM chip will keep the information stored on it. In contrast, a RAM chip is volatile and requires a constant source of power to retain information. When power is lost or turned off, a RAM chip will lose the information stored on it.
     Writing data to a ROM chip is a slow process, whereas writing data to a RAM chip is a faster process.
     A RAM chip can store multiple gigabytes (GB) of data, up to 16 GB or more per chip. A ROM chip typically stores only several megabytes (MB) of data, up to 4 MB or more per chip.

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  14. Nama : gusti nur aulia
    Npm : 12115963
    Email : gustinuraulia88@gmail.com
    2. - Casing, berfungsi sebagai tempat kita meletakkan atau menempelkan motherboard, power supply, optical disc drive, hard disk dll
    - Motherboard adalah papan sirkuit tempat berbagai komponen elektronik atau komponen komputer lainnya saling terhubung
    - Prosessor secara garis besarnya merupakan sebuah alat berbentuk chip kecil yang berguna untuk proses berfikir dan logika dari penjalanan sebuah perintah komputer.
    - RAM  (Random Access Memory). Berfungsi menampung data yang telah terproses oleh processor sebelum di alirkan kebagian-bagian yang membutuhkan
    - VGA (Video Graphic Adapter) atau kartu grafis adalah perangkat keras komputer yang berfungsi sebagai pengolah data grafis sebelum ditampilkan ke monitor.
    - Sound card  berfungsi sebagai prosesor audio untuk PC anda.
    3. - Socket Prosessor merupakan tempat dimana prosessor terpasang.
    - slot memory ini bersebelahan dengan socket prosessor, dan biasanya jumlahnya lebih dari satu slot. 
    - slot ide / slot ata kedua slot ini berbeda bentuknya, tetapi memiliki fungsi yang sama, yaitu untuk penghubung Hardisk atau CD-ROM ke motherboard.
    - Slot pci ini digunakan untuk memasang berbagai macam peripheral tambahan
    - BIOS (Basic Input Output Sistem) merupakan sebuah chip yang berfungsi sebagai pengontrol perangkat keras yang terpasang pada komputer.
    - Battery CMOS (Complimentary Metal Oxide Semicondutor) merupakan sebuah battery kecil yang digunakan untuk memberi daya pada BIOS dan juga untuk menyimpan semua settingan yang ada pada BIOS.
    - Connector ini menghubungkan motherboard dengan power supply agar motherboard bisa mendapatkan daya listrik.
    - i/o ports, bagian ini biasanya dapat kita gunakan dari luar casing. Merupakan kumpulan port sebagai input maupun output data komputer. Terdiri dari USB, LAN, VGA, SERIAL, PS/2
    - port audio, untuk tempat audio terpasang
    - port usb, untuk tempat usb terpasang
    1. Generasi pertama :
    - Sirkuit menggunakan vacum tube atau tabung hampa udara.
    - Memerlukan daya listrik yang sangat besar.
    - Banyak mengeluarkan panas sehingga butuh alatpendingin (AC) yang banyak.
    - Prosesnya relatif lambat.
    Generasi kedua :
    - Sirkuitnya menggunakan transistor sebagai penguat sinyal
    - Program dibuat dengan bahasa tingkat tinggi seperti FORTRAN dan COBOL
    - Kapasitas memori sudah cukup besar dengan pengembangan magnetic core storage

    BalasHapus
  15. 1. What Characteristic traits of first and second generation computers and explain that?
    Generasi pertama dengan menggunakan tabung vakum dan perputaran memori. Generasi kedua menggunakan komponen transistor.
    3. Mentioned 10 parts contained in Motherboard and explain their function?
    - Chipset = yang memiliki peran sangat penting adalah chipset.
    - CPU socket = merupakan tempat dimana prosesor dipasang, sebagai salah satu bagian motherboard yang memiliki peran sangat besar terhadap jalannya siklus informasi data di dalam sebuah komputer.
    - Slot memory = sebagai tempat dipasangnya Random Access Memory (RAM).
    - Konektor IDE = untuk menghubungkan motherboard dengan media penyimpanan seperti hardisk atau floppy disk. 
    - Slot AGP = merupakan slot ekspansi yang digunakan untuk mengggantikan slot PCI yang sudah tidak mencukupi lagi dalam menangani lalu lintas data antara CPU dengan kartu video (video card).
    - Slot PCI = bus yang didesain untuk menangani beberapa perangkat keras.
    - BIOS = untuk mempersiapkan prosess booting (startup) dan mengecek kesiapan sistem dan hardware sebelum komputer dijalankan.
    - battery CMOS = berfungsi sebagai baterai atau sumber tegangan bagi BIOS (Basic Input-Ouput System), sekaligus memiliki peran dalam menyimpan konfirgurasi setting BIOS yang meliputi settingan komputer, waktu, tanggal, dan lain-lain.
    - Heatsink = untuk mendinginkan chip atau prosesor yang menghasilkan panas ketika bekerja.
    - Konektor penghubung = sebagai penghubung antara motherboard dengan perangkat keras komputer tambahan lainnya.
    5. What the difference of RAM with ROM and Give examples of Proccess?
    RAM atau merupakan penyimpanan data sementara program dalam komputer yang sedang berjalan. ROM merupakan sebuah memory yang berfungsi sebagai menyimpan berbagai program yang terdapat pada komputer, laptop, serta gadget.

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  16. Rachmawati Dzakiy Malikah 15115494 2KA01
    3. Chipset:Perangkat cerdas yang satu ini pada dasarnya berfungsi sebagai jembatan arus data yang menghubungkan processor dengan macam-macam komponen eksternal dan buses.
    Cpu socket : tempat dimana prosesor dipasang
    Bios : BIOS adalah adalah sebuah chip yang menyimpan perangkat lunak untuk mengontrol hardware dan berfungsi sebagai interface antara hardware dan operating system (OS).
    Cmos : baterai atau sumber tegangan bagi BIOS (Basic Input-Ouput System), sekaligus memiliki peran dalam menyimpan konfirgurasi setting BIOS yang meliputi settingan komputer, waktu, tanggal, dan lain-lain.
    Slot pci : PCI merupakan bus yang didesain untuk menangani beberapa perangkat keras.
    Slot agp : merupakan slot ekspansi yang digunakan untuk mengggantikan slot PCI yang sudah tidak mencukupi lagi dalam menangani lalu lintas data antara CPU dengan kartu video (video card).
    Konektor ide : untuk menghubungkan motherboard dengan media penyimpanan seperti hardisk atau floppy disk.
    Slot memori : tempat dipasangnya Random Access Memory (RAM).
    Cpu fan dan heatsink :untuk mendinginkan chip atau prosesor yang menghasilkan panas ketika bekerja.
    Konektor : konektor yang berfungsi sebagai penghubung antara motherboard dengan perangkat keras komputer tambahan lainnya.

    2. Vga card : berperan penting untuk menampilkan output process ke monitor.
    Casing : tempat kita meletakkan atau menempelkan motherboard, power supply, optical disc drive, hard disk, dan lain sebagainya
    Power supply : mengalirkan listrik ke setiap bagian komputer agar dapat berjalan.
    Motherboard : menghubungkan setiap komponen-komponen komputer tersebut agar bisa saling berkomunikasi satu sama lain.
    Ram : menampung data yang telah terproses oleh processor sebelum di alirkan kebagian-bagian yang membutuhkan
    Processor : untuk proses berfikir dan logika ( Otaknya komputer ) dari penjalanan sebuah perintah komputer.
    Harddisk :
    tempat penyimpanan data konvensional yang bekerja secara mekanik

    5. Ram :RAM adalah memori yang berfungsi menyimpan sementara perintah dan data pada saat sebuah program dijalankan. Bersifat volatile.
    Contohnya saat menjalankan sebuah program.

    Rom : ROM merupakan perangkat keras komputer yang digunakan untuk menyimpan perintah data secara tetap, Sesuai dengan namanya, komputer hanya dapat membaca data dan perintah yang terdapat di ROM. Komputer tidak dapat merubah data dan perintah yang disimpan di ROM. Bersifat non volatile.

    Contohnya DOS

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  17. 5).A ROM chip is used primarily in the start up process of a computer, whereas a RAM chip is used in the normal operations of a computer after starting up and loading the operating system.

    *Writing data to a ROM chip is a slow process, whereas writing data to a RAM chip is a faster process.

    *A RAM chip can store multiple gigabytes (GB) of data, up to 16 GB or more per chip. A ROM chip typically stores only several megabytes (MB) of data, up to 4 MB or more per chip.

    Ex: A good example of ROM in the computer is the computer BIOS, a PROM chip that stores the programming needed to begin the initial computer start up process

    Ex:For example, the Internet browser you are using to read this page has been loaded into memory and is running from memory. However, as mentioned earlier, any information stored in the RAM chip is lost if the computer is turned off or loses power.

    3) 1. Also known as the microprocessor or the processor, the CPU is the computer's brain.
    2. Random Access Memory, or RAM, usually refers to computer chips that temporarily store dynamic data to enhance computer performance while you are working.
    3. BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System. BIOS is a "read only" memory, which consists of low-level software that controls the system hardware and acts as an interface between the operating system and the hardware.
    4. Motherboards also include a small separate block of memory made from CMOS RAM chips which is kept alive by a battery (known as a CMOS battery) even when the PC’s power is off.
    5.Cache memory is a small block of high-speed memory (RAM) that enhances PC performance by pre-loading information from the (relatively slow) main memory and passing it to the processor on demand.
    6. PCI is the most common expansion bus in a PC and other hardware platforms.
    7. A chipset is a group of small circuits that coordinate the flow of data to and from a PC's key components.
    8. The NorthBridge (also called the memory controller) is in charge of controlling transfers between the processor and the RAM, which is why it is located physically near the processor. It is sometimes called the GMCH, for Graphic and Memory Controller Hub.
    9. The SouthBridge (also called the input/output controller or expansion controller) handles communications between slower peripheral devices. It is also called the ICH (I/O Controller Hub). The term "bridge" is generally used to designate a component which connects two buses.
    10.DIP (Dual In-line Package) switches are small electronic switches found on the circuit board that can be turned on

    2) 1.Random Access Memory is also known as the computer’s system memory. It needs power to be read; hence, when a computer turns off, the memory is lost.

    2.Hard disk drive is the main storage device of a computer. 3.Microprocessor functions as the central processing unit of the computer which provides computation control.
    4.components formed on a single, thin, flat piece of material known as a semiconductor.
    5.Compact Disk Read-Only Memory is collectively known as CD ROM
    6.Floppy disk drive helps store and read data on a removable floppy disk.

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    Balasan
    1. Nama: najiha brilianti
      Npm : 14115959
      Kelas: 2ka01

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  18. nama rezhiawan
    npm 15110828
    kelas 2ka01

    2 .. fungsi ram membantu kinerja komputer untuk menyimpan data sementara .. fungsi power supply sebagai penyuplai daya listrik untuk komputer.. fungsi motherboard menghubungkan seluruh komponen untuk menyusun komputer .. fungsi vga sebagai output komputer ke monitor..

    1. karateristik generasi pertama adalah membutuhkan daya yg lebih besar .. sirkuit menggunakan vacum tube atau tabung tanpa udara.. karateristik generasi kedua sirkuit menggunakan transistor mempunyai kemampuan proses real.

    5. perbedaan ram dan rom
    ram bisa ditulis dan dibaca sedangkan rom tidak.. penyimpanan ram dapat dilakukan dengan mudah sedangkan rom tidak.. pengisian ram diisi oleh pengguna sedangkan rom diisi okeh bawaan pabrik.. ram menyimpan data secara tidak tetap ssedangkan rom sebaliknya

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  19. Aldi Prasetyo

    10115466
    2ka01
    No 1.
    Characteristics of computer first generation are :
    1) First generation computers were based on vacuum tubes.
    2) The operating systems of the first generation computers were very slow.
    3) They were very large in size.
    4) Production of the heat was in large amount in first generation computers.
    5) Machine language was used for programming.
    6) First generation computers were unreliable.
    7) They were difficult to program and use.
    Characteristics of computer second generation are :
    1) Transistors were used in place of vacuum tubes.
    2) Second generation computers were smaller in comparison with the first generation computers.
    3) They were faster in comparison with the first generation computers.
    4) They generated less heat and were less prone to failure.
    5) They took comparatively less computational time.
    6) Assembly language was used for programming.
    7) Second generation computers has faster input/output devices.
    No. 2
    Ram
    Random Access Memory is also known as the computer’s system memory. It needs power to be read; hence, when a computer turns off, the memory is lost.

    Hard Disk Drive
    Hard disk drive is the main storage device of a computer. It uses uses disks that are made of aluminum or glass to store information. Hard drives are measured in gigabytes. Sometimes a special cache is used for quick retrieval of often-used information (such as web pages).

    Microprocessor
    Microprocessor functions as the central processing unit of the computer which provides computation control. Its speed is measured in megahertz. It holds info about the operating system of the computer. The microprocessor is one type of ultra-large-scale integrated circuit that consists of extremely tiny components formed on a single, thin, flat piece of material known as a semiconductor.

    CD-ROM
    Compact Disk Read-Only Memory is collectively known as CD ROM. With the help of laser optics technology, CD ROM reads information from a CD. However, it is not capable of writing informatioin on the CD.

    Floppy Disk Drive
    Floppy disk drive helps store and read data on a removable floppy disk.

    Video Card
    Video Card is an expansion card that is connected to the motherboard. It serves as the visual link between the user and its computer, allowing the user to view and manage the computer’s software data.

    LAN Card
    A LAN Card or Network Interface Card is also an expansion card. Also known as the modem, it helps the computer to connect to another computer on a Network.

    Motherboard
    The Motherboard is the computer’s circuit board where all the ‘inside parts’ are connected. It contains the microprocessor; important computing components; different types of memory chips; mouse, keyboard, and monitor control circuitry; and logic chips that control various parts of the computer’s function. Having as many of the key components of the computer as possible on the motherboard improves the speed and operation of the computer.
    No. 3
    Back Panel Connectors & Ports
    Connectors and ports for connecting the computer to external devices such as display ports, audio ports, USB ports, Ethernet ports, PS/2 ports etc.

    PCI Slots
    PCI: Peripheral Component Interconnect
    Slot for older expansion cards such as sound cards, network cards, connector cards.

    PCI Express x1 Slots
    Slot for modern expansion cards such as sound cards, network cards (Wi-Fi, Ethernet, Bluetooth), connector cards (USB, FireWire, eSATA) and certain low-end graphics cards.

    PCI Express x16 Slot
    Slot for discrete graphic cards and high bandwidth devices such as top-end solid state drives.

    Northbridge
    Also known as Memory Controller Hub (MCH).

    CPU Socket
    Insert CPU here. To learn how to install a CPU, click here for our guide to installing a CPU.

    ATX 12V Power Connector
    Connects to the 4-pin power cable of a power supply unit which supplies power to the CPU.

    Front Panel USB 2.0 Connectors
    Connects to USB 2.0 ports at the front or top of a computer case.

    Front Panel Connectors
    Connects to the p

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    1. IDE Connector
      Connects to older hard drive disks and optical drives for data transfer. See image above for a close-up view.

      CMOS Battery
      Supplies power to store BIOS settings and keep the real-time clock running. See image above for a close-up view.

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  20. fitria rizqa
    2ka01
    12115750

    4. Mention of operating system on the computer and explain their respective strengths?

    The operating system is the most important program that is on a computer. The operating system basically runs the computer and allows other programs to run as well. The operating system does all the basic things that a computer needs to do, such as recognizing inputs from the mouse or the keyboard. It keeps track of where all the files are on the computer. It allocates resources to the various programs that are running and it prevents unauthorized access to the computer.
    The most popular operating system today is Microsoft's Windows operating system. Macintosh computers have their own operating system, the most recent of which is called Mac OS X. There are also open source operating systems such as Linux.
    5. What the difference of RAM with ROM and Give examples of Proccess?
    RAM yang kepanjangannya Random Access Memory adalah sebuah perangkat keras komputer yang merupakan salah satu media penyimpanan yang bersifat penyimpanan sementara. Bersifat sementara karena RAM tidak menyimpan data yang ada di dalamnya setelah daya/listrik pada komputer mati.
    ROM yang kepanjangannya Read Only Memory adalah perangkat keras komputer yang merupakan media penyimpanan yang bersifat hanya bisa dibaca dan data yang disimpan didalamnya permanen. Permanen artinya data yang ada pada ROM tidak akan hilang meskipun daya pada komputer hilang/mati.

    1. What Characteristic traits of first and second generation computers and explain that?

    FIRST GENERATION OF COMPUTERS

    CHARACTERISTICS
    1) First generation computers were based on vacuum tubes.
    2) The operating systems of the first generation computers were very slow.
    3) They were very large in size.
    4) Production of the heat was in large amount in first generation computers.
    5) Machine language was used for programming.
    6) First generation computers were unreliable.
    7) They were difficult to program and use.

    SECOND GENERATION OF COMPUTERS
    CHARACTERISTICS
    1) Transistors were used in place of vacuum tubes.
    2) Second generation computers were smaller in comparison with the first generation computers.
    3) They were faster in comparison with the first generation computers.
    4) They generated less heat and were less prone to failure.
    5) They took comparatively less computational time.
    6) Assembly language was used for programming.
    7) Second generation computers has faster input/output devices.

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  21. Nama : Hanif Arief Fadilah
    Npm : 13115024
    . Komputer Generasi Pertama (1946­ –1959) 
    - Penggunaan tube vakum (yang membuat komputer pada masa tersebut berukuran sangat besar)
    Komputer Generasi Kedua (1959­ – 1964) 
    - Adanya pengembangan memori inti­magnetik membantu pengembangan komputer generasi kedua yang lebih kecil, lebih cepat, lebih dapat diandalkan, dan lebih hemat energi dibanding para pendahulunya
    - Muncul bahasa pemrograman COBOL dan FORTRAN 

    3. Chipset
    Komponen Motherboad yang memiliki peran sangat penting adalah chipset. Perangkat cerdas yang satu ini pada dasarnya berfungsi sebagai jembatan arus data yang menghubungkan processor dengan macam-macam komponen eksternal dan buses. Biasanya jenis chipset inilah yang menjadi patokan untuk menentukan dan menilai fitur dan kemampuan sebuah motherboard.

    CPU Socket
    Ini merupakan tempat dimana prosesor dipasang, sebagai salah satu bagian motherboard yang memiliki peran sangat besar terhadap jalannya siklus informasi data di dalam sebuah komputer.

    BIOS
    BIOS adalah adalah sebuah chip yang menyimpan perangkat lunak untuk mengontrol hardware dan berfungsi sebagai interface antara hardware dan operating system (OS). BIOS digunakan oleh komputer untuk mempersiapkan prosess booting (startup) dan mengecek kesiapan sistem dan hardware sebelum komputer dijalankan.

    Baterai CMOS
    Komponen pada motherboard berikutnya adalah Complimentary Metal Oxide Semicondutor (CMOS) Battery. Sesuai dengan namanya, perangkat ini berfungsi sebagai baterai atau sumber tegangan bagi BIOS (Basic Input-Ouput System),

    Konektor IDE
    Bagian motherboard yang satu ini memiliki fungsi untuk menghubungkan motherboard dengan media penyimpanan seperti hardisk atau floppy disk.

    Slot Memori
    Komponen motherboard selanjutnya adalah slot memori yang biasanya memiliki bentuk agak panjang dan ramping. Fungsinya tentu saja sebagai tempat dipasangnya Random Access Memory (RAM).

    CPU Fan & Heatsink Fan
    Komponen yang melekat pada motherboard berikutnya adalah Heat Sink Fan (HSF), adalah sebuah benda yang terdiri dari aluminium yang dilengkapi dengan fan/kipas untuk mendinginkan chip atau prosesor yang menghasilkan panas ketika bekerja. 

    Port USB
    Untuk antarmuka dengan perifelar atau peralatan eksternal generasi baru menggantikan port paralel dan port serial.

    Port SATA
    Merupakan antarmuka untuk media penyimpanan generasi terbaru. Digunakan untuk menghubungkan Harddisk dengan sistem komputer.

    Port Audio
    Untuk menghubungkan komputer dengan sistem audio seperti speaker, mikrofon, line-in dan line-out.


    5. ROM merupakan ruang yang ada pada komputer atau laptop dan sejenisnya yang dapat menyimpan file, seperti musik, gambar, dll. Sedangkan untuk RAM digunakan sebagai menjalankan aktifitas dari sebuah program yang sedang aktif atau berjalan pada komputer tersebut

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  22. Nama : Prasastia Aryani Salia
    npm : 2ka01
    Kelas : 2ka01

    5. -A ROM chip is used primarily in the start up process of a computer, whereas a RAM chip is used in the normal operations of a computer after starting up and loading the operating system.
    - A RAM chip can store multiple gigabytes (GB) of data, up to 16 GB or more per chip. A ROM chip typically stores only several megabytes (MB) of data, up to 4 MB or more per chip.

    BalasHapus
    Balasan
    1. 1. First Generation (1941-1956)

      World War gave rise to numerous developments and started off the computer age. Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was produced by a partnership between University of Pennsylvania and the US government. It consisted of 18,000 vacuum tubes and 7000 resistors. It was developed by John Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly and was a general purpose computer. "Von Neumann designed the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) in 1945 with a memory to hold both a stored program as well as data." Von Neumann's computer allowed for all the computer functions to be controlled by a single source.
      Then in 1951 came the Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC I), designed by Remington rand and collectively owned by US census bureau and General Electric. UNIVAC amazingly predicted the winner of 1952, presidential elections, Dwight D. Eisenhower.
      In first generation computers, the operating instructions or programs were specifically built for the task for which computer was manufactured. The Machine language was the only way to tell these machines to perform the operations. There was great difficulty to program these computers and more when there were some malfunctions. First Generation computers used Vacuum tubes and magnetic drums (for data storage).


      Second Generation Computers (1956-1963)

      The invention of Transistors marked the start of the second generation. These transistors took place of the vacuum tubes used in the first generation computers. First large scale machines were made using these technologies to meet the requirements of atomic energy laboratories. One of the other benefits to the programming group was that the second generation replaced Machine language with the assembly language. Even though complex in itself Assembly language was much easier than the binary code.
      Second generation computers also started showing the characteristics of modern day computers with utilities such as printers, disk storage and operating systems. Many financial information was processed using these computers.
      In Second Generation computers, the instructions (program) could be stored inside the computer's memory. High-level languages such as COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language) and FORTRAN (Formula Translator) were used, and they are still used for some applications nowadays.

      Hapus
    2. 2. Components
      A typical CPU has a number of components. The first is the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs simple arithmetic and logical operations. Second is the control unit (CU), which manages the various components of the computer. It reads and interprets instructions from memory and transforms them into a series of signals to activate other parts of the computer. The control unit calls upon the arithmetic logic unit to perform the necessary calculations.

      Third is the cache, which serves as high-speed memory where instructions can be copied to and retrieved. Early CPUs consisted of many separate components, but since the 1970s, they have been constructed as a single integrated unit called a microprocessor. As such, a CPU is a specific type of microprocessor. The individual components of a CPU have become so integrated that you can't even recognize them from the outside. This CPU is about two inches by two inches in size

      Hapus
  23. Nama : Fadhilah Rezki Putri
    NPM: 12115344
    Kelas : 2KA01

    2. Komponen CPU:
    - Casing, Berfungsi untuk menutupi dan  melindungi komponen-komponen lain dari kotoran debu serta sebagai tempat dudukan komponen lain
    - motherboard, fungsinya untuk untuk menghubungkan setiap komponen-komponen komputer tersebut agar bisa saling berkomunikasi satu sama lain.
    - processor, berfungsi memproses berbagai macam data.
    - RAM, Berfungsi menampung data yang telah terproses oleh processor serta Menyimpan Data Sementara Selama Komputer Dalam Keadaan Hidup.
    - VGA card, berfungsi untuk mengolah data grafis dan menampilkannya ke monitor.
    - sound card, Fungsinya adalah memerima sinyal digital dari komputer dan menjadi gelombang dan menghasilkan sinyal sonic
    - harddisk, berfungsi untuk menyimpan data yang ada di dalam komputer.
    - power supply, berfungsi untuk memberikan daya (sumber arus listrik) pada komponen-komponen komputer.
    - disk drive, berfungsi untuk membaca dan menullis CD/DVD.

    4. Kelebihan OS windows7
    · Proses Booting dan proses Shut Down lebih cepat.
    · Hemat Konsumsi daya
    · Terdapat  aplikasi Device Storage
    · Optimasi dalam prefetching
    · System pencarian data yang lebih cepat
    · Anda bisa memilih Jaringan Wireless
    · Mendukung Teknologi multi touch ( layar sentuh )
    · Mempunyai Interface/ Tampilan serta aplikasi Lebih Menarik

    Kelebihan os Linux:
    - Jauh lebih murah dibandingkan sistem operasi lain
    - Merupakan sistem operasi yang memiliki code 32 bit
    - tingkat keamanan baik
    - tampilan grafik baik
    - spesifikasi hardware tidak terlalu besar

    5. Perbedaan RAM dan ROM
    RAM : memory yang berfungsi menyimpan sementara perintah/data pada saat program dijalankan. Contoh : aplikasi/ program yang sedang dijalan
    ROM : memory yang berfungsi menyimpan perintah/data secara permanen. Contoh : program basic pada komputer aeperti BIOS.

    BalasHapus
  24. Nama : gusti nur aulia
    Npm : 12115963
    Email : gustinuraulia88@gmail.com
    2. - Casing, berfungsi sebagai tempat kita meletakkan atau menempelkan motherboard, power supply, optical disc drive, hard disk dll
    - Motherboard adalah papan sirkuit tempat berbagai komponen elektronik atau komponen komputer lainnya saling terhubung
    - Prosessor secara garis besarnya merupakan sebuah alat berbentuk chip kecil yang berguna untuk proses berfikir dan logika dari penjalanan sebuah perintah komputer.
    - RAM  (Random Access Memory). Berfungsi menampung data yang telah terproses oleh processor sebelum di alirkan kebagian-bagian yang membutuhkan
    - VGA (Video Graphic Adapter) atau kartu grafis adalah perangkat keras komputer yang berfungsi sebagai pengolah data grafis sebelum ditampilkan ke monitor.
    - Sound card  berfungsi sebagai prosesor audio untuk PC anda.
    3. - Socket Prosessor merupakan tempat dimana prosessor terpasang.
    - slot memory ini bersebelahan dengan socket prosessor, dan biasanya jumlahnya lebih dari satu slot. 
    - slot ide / slot ata kedua slot ini berbeda bentuknya, tetapi memiliki fungsi yang sama, yaitu untuk penghubung Hardisk atau CD-ROM ke motherboard.
    - Slot pci ini digunakan untuk memasang berbagai macam peripheral tambahan
    - BIOS (Basic Input Output Sistem) merupakan sebuah chip yang berfungsi sebagai pengontrol perangkat keras yang terpasang pada komputer.
    - Battery CMOS (Complimentary Metal Oxide Semicondutor) merupakan sebuah battery kecil yang digunakan untuk memberi daya pada BIOS dan juga untuk menyimpan semua settingan yang ada pada BIOS.
    - Connector ini menghubungkan motherboard dengan power supply agar motherboard bisa mendapatkan daya listrik.
    - i/o ports, bagian ini biasanya dapat kita gunakan dari luar casing. Merupakan kumpulan port sebagai input maupun output data komputer. Terdiri dari USB, LAN, VGA, SERIAL, PS/2
    - port audio, untuk tempat audio terpasang
    - port usb, untuk tempat usb terpasang
    1. Generasi pertama :
    - Sirkuit menggunakan vacum tube atau tabung hampa udara.
    - Memerlukan daya listrik yang sangat besar.
    - Banyak mengeluarkan panas sehingga butuh alatpendingin (AC) yang banyak.
    - Prosesnya relatif lambat.
    Generasi kedua :
    - Sirkuitnya menggunakan transistor sebagai penguat sinyal
    - Program dibuat dengan bahasa tingkat tinggi seperti FORTRAN dan COBOL
    - Kapasitas memori sudah cukup besar dengan pengembangan magnetic core storage

    BalasHapus
  25. Nabila chinintya w
    14115879
    2ka01

    [[[2]]]]
    ALU, singkatan dari Arithmetic And Logic Unit ( unit aritmatika dan logika), pokoknya perhitungan.
    CU (Control Unit), pokoknyabagian dari CPU yang bertugas untuk memberikan arahan/kendali/ kontrol terhadap operasi yang dilakukan di bagian ALU (Arithmetic Logical Unit) di dalam CPU tersebut.

    [[[[3]]]]
    10 parts contained in Motherboard and their function are....
    1. I/O ports- use to connect the outside hardware or peripherals of the computer.
    2. ATX Power connector(4 pin)- This is use to connect the 4 pin of the power supply unit(PSU) .
    3. Processor’s ZIF Socket- Part of MOBO use to hold the processor or CPU chip (Zero Insertion Force).
    4. Memory slot - this is the slot of computer memory or what we called RAM.
    5. ATX Power connector (24 or 28 pin) - A group of connector of the MOBO.
    6. Name of the Vendor- This is important to know the manufacturer or vendor. So you can download through the internet site the driver software of the MOBO.
    7. CMOS/BIOS BATTERY- In this part, the CMOS/BIOS battery is hold. And to preserve the BIOS settings of the computer.
    8. IDE connector (Intergrated Drive Electronics)- This connector is use to connect the IDE cable of the HDD(Hard Disk Drive) or CD/DVD ROM to the Mother Board IDE.
    9. Front panel connectors(F-Panel)- This is use to connect the Power LED,HDD LED, Power Switch, and Reset switch of the computer system unit(CPU).
    10. SATA connector-The new standard of the IDE connection array of the computer HDD (SATA HDD) to the motherboard system.

    [[[[5]]]]
    RAM:
    1. Dapat ditulis dan dibaca
    2. Data dibuat oleh aktivitas komputer
    3. Memori penyimpanan acak
    4. Digunakan sebagai memori utama komputer
    5. Data yang tersimpan selalu berubah sesuai penggunaan komputer


    ROM:
    1. Hanya dapat dibaca
    2. Data dibuat oleh pabrik pembuat ROM
    3. Memori penyimpanan urut
    4. Digunakan untuk menyimpan firmware*
    5. Data yang tersimpan bersifat permanen yang berarti tidak dapat berubah-ubah

    Contoh RAM :
    · EDO RAM ( 72 pin )
    · SDRAM ( 168 pin )
    · DDR (184 pin )
    · DDR II ( 240 pin )
    · RD RAM

    Contoh ROM :
    Mask ROM adalah ROM yang tidak bisa ditulis ulang (non-flashable) sehingga tidak dapat di up-grade.
    PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory) adalah jenis ROM yang hanya bisa dibaca datanya.

    BalasHapus
  26. No 1.
    Characteristics of computer first generation are :
    1) First generation computers were based on vacuum tubes.
    2) The operating systems of the first generation computers were very slow.
    3) They were very large in size.
    4) Production of the heat was in large amount in first generation computers.
    5) Machine language was used for programming.
    6) First generation computers were unreliable.
    7) They were difficult to program and use.
    Characteristics of computer second generation are :
    1) Transistors were used in place of vacuum tubes.
    2) Second generation computers were smaller in comparison with the first generation computers.
    3) They were faster in comparison with the first generation computers.
    4) They generated less heat and were less prone to failure.
    5) They took comparatively less computational time.
    6) Assembly language was used for programming.
    7) Second generation computers has faster input/output devices.
    No. 2
    Ram
    Random Access Memory is also known as the computer’s system memory. It needs power to be read; hence, when a computer turns off, the memory is lost.

    Hard Disk Drive
    Hard disk drive is the main storage device of a computer. It uses uses disks that are made of aluminum or glass to store information. Hard drives are measured in gigabytes. Sometimes a special cache is used for quick retrieval of often-used information (such as web pages).

    Microprocessor
    Microprocessor functions as the central processing unit of the computer which provides computation control. Its speed is measured in megahertz. It holds info about the operating system of the computer. The microprocessor is one type of ultra-large-scale integrated circuit that consists of extremely tiny components formed on a single, thin, flat piece of material known as a semiconductor.

    CD-ROM
    Compact Disk Read-Only Memory is collectively known as CD ROM. With the help of laser optics technology, CD ROM reads information from a CD. However, it is not capable of writing informatioin on the CD.

    Floppy Disk Drive
    Floppy disk drive helps store and read data on a removable floppy disk.

    Video Card
    Video Card is an expansion card that is connected to the motherboard. It serves as the visual link between the user and its computer, allowing the user to view and manage the computer’s software data.

    LAN Card
    A LAN Card or Network Interface Card is also an expansion card. Also known as the modem, it helps the computer to connect to another computer on a Network.

    Motherboard
    The Motherboard is the computer’s circuit board where all the ‘inside parts’ are connected. It contains the microprocessor; important computing components; different types of memory chips; mouse, keyboard, and monitor control circuitry; and logic chips that control various parts of the computer’s function. Having as many of the key components of the computer as possible on the motherboard improves the speed and operation of the computer.
    No. 3
    Back Panel Connectors & Ports
    Connectors and ports for connecting the computer to external devices such as display ports, audio ports, USB ports, Ethernet ports, PS/2 ports etc.

    PCI Slots
    PCI: Peripheral Component Interconnect
    Slot for older expansion cards such as sound cards, network cards, connector cards.

    PCI Express x1 Slots
    Slot for modern expansion cards such as sound cards, network cards (Wi-Fi, Ethernet, Bluetooth), connector cards (USB, FireWire, eSATA) and certain low-end graphics cards.

    PCI Express x16 Slot
    Slot for discrete graphic cards and high bandwidth devices such as top-end solid state drives.

    Northbridge
    Also known as Memory Controller Hub (MCH).

    CPU Socket
    Insert CPU here. To learn how to install a CPU, click here for our guide to installing a CPU.

    ATX 12V Power Connector
    Connects to the 4-pin power cable of a power supply unit which supplies power to the CPU.

    Front Panel USB 2.0 Connectors
    Connects to USB 2.0 ports at the front or top of a computer case.

    Front Panel Connectors
    Connects to the power switch, reset switch, power LED, hard drive LED and front audio

    BalasHapus
  27. Nabila chinintya w
    14115879
    2ka01

    [[[2]]]]
    ALU, singkatan dari Arithmetic And Logic Unit ( unit aritmatika dan logika), pokoknya perhitungan.
    CU (Control Unit), pokoknyabagian dari CPU yang bertugas untuk memberikan arahan/kendali/ kontrol terhadap operasi yang dilakukan di bagian ALU (Arithmetic Logical Unit) di dalam CPU tersebut.

    [[[[3]]]]
    10 parts contained in Motherboard and their function are....
    1. I/O ports- use to connect the outside hardware or peripherals of the computer.
    2. ATX Power connector(4 pin)- This is use to connect the 4 pin of the power supply unit(PSU) .
    3. Processor’s ZIF Socket- Part of MOBO use to hold the processor or CPU chip (Zero Insertion Force).
    4. Memory slot - this is the slot of computer memory or what we called RAM.
    5. ATX Power connector (24 or 28 pin) - A group of connector of the MOBO.
    6. Name of the Vendor- This is important to know the manufacturer or vendor. So you can download through the internet site the driver software of the MOBO.
    7. CMOS/BIOS BATTERY- In this part, the CMOS/BIOS battery is hold. And to preserve the BIOS settings of the computer.
    8. IDE connector (Intergrated Drive Electronics)- This connector is use to connect the IDE cable of the HDD(Hard Disk Drive) or CD/DVD ROM to the Mother Board IDE.
    9. Front panel connectors(F-Panel)- This is use to connect the Power LED,HDD LED, Power Switch, and Reset switch of the computer system unit(CPU).
    10. SATA connector-The new standard of the IDE connection array of the computer HDD (SATA HDD) to the motherboard system.

    [[[[5]]]]
    RAM:
    1. Dapat ditulis dan dibaca
    2. Data dibuat oleh aktivitas komputer
    3. Memori penyimpanan acak
    4. Digunakan sebagai memori utama komputer
    5. Data yang tersimpan selalu berubah sesuai penggunaan komputer


    ROM:
    1. Hanya dapat dibaca
    2. Data dibuat oleh pabrik pembuat ROM
    3. Memori penyimpanan urut
    4. Digunakan untuk menyimpan firmware*
    5. Data yang tersimpan bersifat permanen yang berarti tidak dapat berubah-ubah

    Contoh RAM :
    · EDO RAM ( 72 pin )
    · SDRAM ( 168 pin )
    · DDR (184 pin )
    · DDR II ( 240 pin )
    · RD RAM

    Contoh ROM :
    Mask ROM adalah ROM yang tidak bisa ditulis ulang (non-flashable) sehingga tidak dapat di up-grade.
    PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory) adalah jenis ROM yang hanya bisa dibaca datanya.

    BalasHapus
  28. 5) *A ROM chip is used primarily in the start up process of a computer, whereas a RAM chip is used in the normal operations of a computer after starting up and loading the operating system.



    *Writing data to a ROM chip is a slow process, whereas writing data to a RAM chip is a faster process.

    *A RAM chip can store multiple gigabytes (GB) of data, up to 16 GB or more per chip. A ROM chip typically stores only several megabytes (MB) of data, up to 4 MB or more per chip.

    Ex: A good example of ROM in the computer is the computer BIOS, a PROM chip that stores the programming needed to begin the initial computer start up process

    Ex:For example, the Internet browser you are using to read this page has been loaded into memory and is running from memory. However, as mentioned earlier, any information stored in the RAM chip is lost if the computer is turned off or loses power.

    2) 1.Random Access Memory is also known as the computer’s system memory. It needs power to be read; hence, when a computer turns off, the memory is lost.

    2.Hard disk drive is the main storage device of a computer. It uses uses disks that are made of aluminum or glass to store information. Hard drives are measured in gigabytes. Sometimes a special cache is used for quick retrieval of often-used information.

    3.Microprocessor functions as the central processing unit of the computer which provides computation control. Its speed is measured in megahertz. It holds info about the operating system of the computer. The microprocessor is one type of ultra-large-scale integrated circuit that consists of extremely tiny 4.components formed on a single, thin, flat piece of material known as a semiconductor.
    5.Compact Disk Read-Only Memory is collectively known as CD ROM. With the help of laser optics technology, CD ROM reads information from a CD. However, it is not capable of writing informatioin on the CD.
    6.Floppy disk drive helps store and read data on a removable floppy disk.

    3) 1. Also known as the microprocessor or the processor, the CPU is the computer's brain.
    2. Random Access Memory, or RAM, usually refers to computer chips that temporarily store dynamic data to enhance computer performance while you are working.
    3. BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System.
    4. Motherboards also include a small separate block of memory made from CMOS RAM chips which is kept alive by a battery (known as a CMOS battery) even when the PC’s power is off.
    5.Cache memory is a small block of high-speed memory (RAM) that enhances PC performance by pre-loading information from the (relatively slow) main memory and passing it to the processor on 6. PCI is the most common expansion bus in a PC and other hardware platforms.
    7. A chipset is a group of small circuits that coordinate the flow of data to and from a PC's key components.
    8. The NorthBridge (also called the memory controller) is in charge of controlling transfers between the processor and the RAM,
    9. The SouthBridge (also called the input/output controller or expansion controller) handles communications between slower peripheral devices. It is also called the ICH (I/O Controller Hub).
    10.DIP (Dual In-line Package) switches are small electronic switches found on

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    Balasan
    1. Nama: najiha brilianti
      Kelas : 2ka01
      Npm: 14115959

      Hapus
  29. Aldi prasetyo
    10115466
    2ka01
    No 1.
    Characteristics of computer first generation are :
    1) First generation computers were based on vacuum tubes.
    2) The operating systems of the first generation computers were very slow.
    3) They were very large in size.
    4) Production of the heat was in large amount in first generation computers.
    5) Machine language was used for programming.
    6) First generation computers were unreliable.
    7) They were difficult to program and use.
    Characteristics of computer second generation are :
    1) Transistors were used in place of vacuum tubes.
    2) Second generation computers were smaller in comparison with the first generation computers.
    3) They were faster in comparison with the first generation computers.
    4) They generated less heat and were less prone to failure.
    5) They took comparatively less computational time.
    6) Assembly language was used for programming.
    7) Second generation computers has faster input/output devices.
    No. 2
    Ram
    Random Access Memory is also known as the computer’s system memory. It needs power to be read; hence, when a computer turns off, the memory is lost.

    Hard Disk Drive
    Hard disk drive is the main storage device of a computer. It uses uses disks that are made of aluminum or glass to store information. Hard drives are measured in gigabytes. Sometimes a special cache is used for quick retrieval of often-used information (such as web pages).

    Microprocessor
    Microprocessor functions as the central processing unit of the computer which provides computation control. Its speed is measured in megahertz. It holds info about the operating system of the computer. The microprocessor is one type of ultra-large-scale integrated circuit that consists of extremely tiny components formed on a single, thin, flat piece of material known as a semiconductor.

    CD-ROM
    Compact Disk Read-Only Memory is collectively known as CD ROM. With the help of laser optics technology, CD ROM reads information from a CD. However, it is not capable of writing informatioin on the CD.

    Floppy Disk Drive
    Floppy disk drive helps store and read data on a removable floppy disk.

    Video Card
    Video Card is an expansion card that is connected to the motherboard. It serves as the visual link between the user and its computer, allowing the user to view and manage the computer’s software data.

    LAN Card
    A LAN Card or Network Interface Card is also an expansion card. Also known as the modem, it helps the computer to connect to another computer on a Network.

    Motherboard
    The Motherboard is the computer’s circuit board where all the ‘inside parts’ are connected. It contains the microprocessor; important computing components; different types of memory chips; mouse, keyboard, and monitor control circuitry; and logic chips that control various parts of the computer’s function. Having as many of the key components of the computer as possible on the motherboard improves the speed and operation of the computer.
    No. 3
    Back Panel Connectors & Ports
    Connectors and ports for connecting the computer to external devices such as display ports, audio ports.

    PCI Slots
    PCI: Peripheral Component Interconnect
    Slot for older expansion cards such as sound cards, network cards, connector cards.

    PCI Express x1 Slots
    Slot for modern expansion cards such as sound cards, network cards (Wi-Fi, Ethernet, Bluetooth), connector cards (USB, FireWire, eSATA) and certain low-end graphics cards.

    PCI Express x16 Slot
    Slot for discrete graphic cards and high bandwidth devices such as top-end solid state drives.

    Northbridge
    Also known as Memory Controller Hub (MCH).

    CPU Socket
    Insert CPU here. To learn how to install a CPU, click here for our guide to installing a CPU.

    ATX 12V Power Connector
    Connects to the 4-pin power cable of a power supply unit which supplies power to the CPU.

    Front Panel USB 2.0 Connectors
    Connects to USB 2.0 ports at the front or top of a computer case.

    Front Panel Connectors
    Connects to the power switch, reset switch, power LED, hard drive LED and front audio ports of a computer case.

    BalasHapus
  30. Abitama Satria
    (10115042) 2KA01

    1. What Characteristic traits of first and second generation computers and explain that?
    Answer :
    First generation computers use vacuum tubes, magnetic drums, run on a very slow operating system, takes large space to store (put the computer). Second generation computers use transistor (instead of vacumm tube), smaller than it's predecessor, can run COBOL and FORTRAN.

    2. Mention of operating system on the computer and explain their respective strengths?
    Answer :
    • Windows -> very familiar user interface, most softwares are build for Windows, open source
    • MacOS -> closed source (hard to cracked), more beautifull UI than Windows, save from virus etc.
    • Android OS -> designed for smartphone, most smartphone apps is now build for Android, very costumizable (as it Linux based), open source

    3. What the difference of RAM with ROM and Give examples of Proccess?
    Answer :
    RAM stands for Random Access Memory, while ROM for Read Only Memory. RAM stores running app's data and once the app closed, the data will no longer exist in RAM. ROM stores require programs to boot computer and only allow read process.

    BalasHapus
  31. Nama: Najiha Brilianti
    Npm: 14115959
    Kelas: 2ka01

    5) *A ROM chip is used primarily in the start up process of a computer, whereas a RAM chip is used in the normal operations of a computer after starting up and loading the operating system.

    *Writing data to a ROM chip is a slow process, whereas writing data to a RAM chip is a faster process.

    *A RAM chip can store multiple gigabytes (GB) of data, up to 16 GB or more per chip. A ROM chip typically stores only several megabytes (MB) of data, up to 4 MB or more per chip.

    Ex: A good example of ROM in the computer is the computer BIOS, a PROM chip that stores the programming needed to begin the initial computer start up process

    Ex:For example, the Internet browser you are using to read this page has been loaded into memory and is running from memory. However, as mentioned earlier, any information stored in the RAM chip is lost if the computer is turned off or loses power.

    2) 1.Random Access Memory is also known as the computer’s system memory. It needs power to be read; hence, when a computer turns off, the memory is lost.

    2.Hard disk drive is the main storage device of a computer.
    3.Microprocessor functions as the central processing unit of the computer which provides computation control.
    4.components formed on a single, thin, flat piece of material known as a semiconductor.
    5.Compact Disk Read-Only Memory is collectively known as CD ROM.

    3) 1. Also known as the microprocessor or the processor, the CPU is the computer's brain.
    2. Random Access Memory, or RAM, usually refers to computer chips that temporarily store dynamic data to enhance computer performance while you are working.
    3. BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System. BIOS is a "read only" memory, which consists of low-level software that controls the system hardware
    4. Motherboards also include a small separate block of memory made from CMOS RAM chips
    5.Cache memory is a small block of high-speed memory (RAM) that enhances PC performance by pre-loading information
    6. PCI is the most common expansion bus in a PC and other hardware platforms.
    7. A chipset is a group of small circuits that coordinate the flow of data to and from a PC's key components.
    8. The NorthBridge (also called the memory controller) is in charge of controlling transfers between the processor and the RAM,
    9. The SouthBridge (also called the input/output controller or expansion controller) handles communications between slower peripheral devices.
    10.DIP (Dual In-line Package) switches are small electronic switches found on the circuit board that can be turned on

    BalasHapus
  32. 1. First gen : massive, slow, using vacuum tubr, wire connected.

    Second gen : smaller, but bigger than gen 3, uses transistor, but not yet using integrated ic, faster than gen 1

    3.RAM stands for Random Access Memory, while ROM for Read Only Memory. RAM stores running app's data and once the app closed, the data will no longer exist in RAM. ROM stores require programs to boot computer and only allow read process.

    4. Windows 10
    -Improvement for desktop user
    -one drive changes
    -the redesign touch interface

    BalasHapus
  33. Firda amalia
    12115702
    2ka15
    1. First generation : 1) First generation computers were based on vacuum tubes.
    2) The operating systems of the first generation computers were very slow.
    3) They were very large in size.

    Second generation : 1) Transistors were used in place of vacuum tubes.
    2) Second generation computers were smaller in comparison with the first generation computers.
    3) They were faster in comparison with the first generation computers.

    2. The three major components of a CPU are the arithmetic logic unit, the control unit and the cache.
    # The arithmetic logic unit handles the arithmetic and logic functions
    #The control unit is responsible for processing instructions that come from the computer's memory and activating the other components of the computer
    #The cache is the memory in which instructions are temporarily stored.

    5. A ROM chip is non-volatile storage and does not require a constant source of power to retain information stored on it. When power is lost or turned off, a ROM chip will keep the information stored on it.
    In contrast, a RAM chip is volatile and requires a constant source of power to retain information. When power is lost or turned off, a RAM chip will lose the information stored on it


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  34. Name : melinda eliza
    Npm : 14115134
    Kelas : 2ka15

    1. - CHARACTERISTICS first generation
    1) First generation computers were based on vacuum tubes.
    2) The operating systems of the first generation computers were very slow.
    3) They were very large in size.
    4) Production of the heat was in large amount in first generation computers.
    5) Machine language was used for programming.
    6) First generation computers were unreliable.
    7) They were difficult to program and use.
    - CHARACTERISTICS second generation
    1) Transistors were used in place of vacuum tubes.
    2) Second generation computers were smaller in comparison with the first generation computers.
    3) They were faster in comparison the first generation computers.
    4) They generated less heat and were less prone to failure.
    5) They took comparatively less computational time.
    6) Assembly language was used for programming.
    7) Second generation computers has faster input/output devices.

    2. CPU : responsible for fetching, decoding, and executing program instructions as well as performing mathematical and logical calculations.
    RAM : the working place of your computer, where active programs and data are loaded so that any time time the processor requires them, it doesn't have to fetch them from the hard disk. When a computer shuts down properly, all data located in RAM is returned back to permanent storage on the hard drive or flash drive
    BIOS : BIOS is a "read only" memory, which consists of low-level software that controls the system hardware and acts as an interface between the operating system and the hardware
    CMOS RAM : kept alive by a battery (known as a CMOS battery) even when the PC’s power is off. This prevents reconfiguration when the PC is powered on.
    Cache memory : Cache memory is a small block of high-speed memory (RAM) that enhances PC performance by pre-loading information from the (relatively slow) main memory and passing it to the processor on demand.
    Expansion bus : Expansion buses enhance the PCs capabilities by allowing users to add missing features in their computers by slotting adapter cards into expansion slots.
    Chipsets : A chipset is a group of small circuits that coordinate the flow of data to and from a PC's key components.

    3. A ROM chip is used primarily in the start up process of a computer, whereas a RAM chip is used in the normal operations of a computer after starting up and loading the operating system.Writing data to a ROM chip is a slow process, whereas writing data to a RAM chip is a faster process.A RAM chip can store multiple gigabytes (GB) of data, up to 16 GB or more per chip. A ROM chip typically stores only several megabytes (MB) of data, up to 4 MB or more per chip.

    RAM chips are also used in computers, as well as other devices, to store information and run programs on the computer because RAM is one of the fastest types of memory in your computer. For example, the Internet browser you are using to read this page has been loaded into memory and is running from memory. However, as mentioned earlier, any information stored in the RAM chip is lost if the computer is turned off or loses power.

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  35. Nama : Muchamad Fajar Firmansyah
    Kelas : 2KA15
    NPM 14115323

    2. What a parts contained in CPU and Explain their function?
    - Processor : Place where's the processing is processed
    - RAM : Place what needed for processing
    - PSU : supplying power
    - Hard Disk : place to save data permanently
    - CD Room : to read a disk
    - Vga : Porses visual data on Computer
    - Sound card : Proses sound data on computer
    - Motherboard : Attach all componen
    - Modem/lan card (expansion): help the computer to connect with the others
    3. Mentioned 10 parts contained in Motherboard and explain their function?
    - Konektor Power: menyambungkan motherboard dengan power supply
    - North Bridge Controller: memberikan interface prosessor
    - Socket Memmory: Untuk menyimpan memori
    - Konektor Floppy dan IDE: tempat penyimpanan floppy disk dan harddisk
    - AGP 4x Slot Mendukung kartu grafis
    - South Bridge Controller: Mendukung berbaga I/O
    - Standby Power LED: sebaga pemberi tanda bahwa Motherboard nyala atau tidak\
    - PCI Slot: Mensupport Bus Master PCI Cart
    - PS/2 Mouse Port: menyambungkan mouse
    - Port Paralel dan Serial: Menyambungkan PC dengan Hardware
    5. What the difference of RAM with ROM and Give examples of Proccess?
    Ram : Data that store in there is impermanent, it will be erased when the PC is shut down. Ex: DDR1 to DDR 4
    Rom : Data that store in there is permanent, Used for storing setting data. Ex : EMMC

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  36. Nama : Trianto Nugraha
    NPM : 16115949
    KELAS : 2KA15
    5. RAM, RAM is a temporary data storage
    media in a computer that can only work if the computer been electricity or light up, the RAM on a computer is also made with a kind of Integrated Sircuit or IC and are typically installed separately from mainboardnya.
    The ROM is a data storage medium that is permanent. One type of ROM is ROM bios.

    2. (1) Casing Serves as where we put or attach the motherboard, power supply, optical disc drive, hard disk, and other sebagainyaMelindungi various components in it from dust, heat, water, or other impurities
    (2) The motherboard is the circuit board where a variety of electronic components or other computer components are connected such as processor, video card, sound card, hard disk, and so forth. The motherboard serves to connect each of the components of the computer to be able to communicate with each other.
    (3) Processor outline besarnyamerupakan a small chip-shaped tool that is useful to the process of thinking and the logic of starting a computer command. The higher the speed of the processor, the faster the computer in processing various kinds of data. Even then, must be supported by a large RAM and hard drive.

    3 1. Chipset
    Components of a motherboard that has a very important role is the chipset. This one smart device that essentially serves as a bridge that connects the data flow processor with a variety of external components and buses. Usually this type of chipset which is the benchmark for determining and assessing the features and capabilities of a motherboard.

    2.Northbridge / MCH
    Northbridge is the name used by AMD, VIA and some other hardware, printing companies, while manufacturers Intel prefers to call it by the name which stands MCH Memory Controller Hub.

    One development of PCI Express slot PCI is used as an expansion slot (slot additional or external) on a computer. PCI Express itself is divided into two tailored according to their respective functions, such as:

    PCI Express x16 slot
    Is a special slot that can be used or installed VGA card terbaru.Slot generation PCI Express x1
    Sdalah slot to install peripherals (card) other than the VGA card.

    3. Slot AGP (AGP Slot)

    The next component is the AGP slot motherboard, a place to install AGP which by definition could be interpreted as Accelerted Graphics Port. This device born of developments in the PCI slot, which is the function of the AGP expansion slot that used to mengggantikan PCI slot that is not sufficient anymore to handle data traffic between CPU and video card (video card).

    4.Konektor IDE

    Part of the motherboard that has a function to connect the motherboard to storage media such as hard disk or floppy disk. IDE connectors are usually composed of two parts:

    5.Primary IDE
    Serves to connect the motherboard to the primary master drive and master.Secondary secondary IDE devices
    Serves to connect the devices to the slave CDROM and hard drive as slave.

    6. Memory Slot (Memory Slot)

    The next component is the motherboard memory slots usually have a rather long and slender shape. Its function is of course as has been installed Random Access Memory (RAM). Type of memory slots themselves also vary, depending on the system it uses, ranging from SDRAM, RAMBUS, DDR SDRAM, DDR2 SDRAM, DDR3, or SDRAM. There is now not a stranger anymore if a motherboard has more daru one slot of memory (RAM), even on high-end computer specifications there motherboards that include up to six RAM slots.

    7. CPU Fan and Heat Sink (HSF)

    Components attached to the motherboard next Heat Sink Fan (HSF), is an object consisting of aluminum which is equipped with a fan / fan to cool the chip or processor which generates heat when working. At the processor and graphics card chip, generally equipped with a fan, while others do not come with a fan because the temperature produced can be removed with the heatsink only.

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  37. Azio Azravi
    11115200
    2KA15

    5. RAM

    RAM is Random Access Memory, they will clear the memmory when the computer shut down

    ROM

    ROM is read only memory, save your BIOS setting

    Example :
    RAM = when you running your program on computer, like playing game, using ms word and my more

    ROM = ROM save your Basic Input Output System (BIOS) of your computer

    3.
    Central Processing Unit (CPU) =
    Also known as the microprocessor or the processor, the CPU is the computer's brain. It is responsible for fetching, decoding, and executing program instructions as well as performing mathematical and logical calculations.


    Random Access Memory (RAM)
    Random Access Memory, or RAM, usually refers to computer chips that temporarily store dynamic data to enhance computer performance while you are working.

    Cache Memory
    Cache memory is a small block of high-speed memory (RAM) that enhances PC performance by pre-loading information from the (relatively slow) main memory and passing it to the processor on demand.


    Expansion Bus
    An expansion bus is an input/output pathway from the CPU to peripheral devices and it is typically made up of a series of slots on the motherboard. Expansion boards (cards) plug into the bus. PCI is the most common expansion bus in a PC and other hardware platforms. Buses carry signals such as data, memory addresses, power, and control signals from component to component. Other types of buses include ISA and EISA.

    Chipsets
    A chipset is a group of small circuits that coordinate the flow of data to and from a PC's key components. These key components include the CPU itself, the main memory, the secondary cache, and any devices situated on the buses. A chipset also controls data flow to and from hard disks and other devices connected to the IDE channels.

    CPU Clock
    The CPU clock synchronizes the operation of all parts of the PC and provides the basic timing signal for the CPU. Using a quartz crystal, the CPU clock breathes life into the microprocessor by feeding it a constant flow of pulses.

    CMOS Battery
    to save date and time in your computer

    SATA Port
    a port to connect your harddisk with the motherboard using sata cable

    VGA
    a hardware to proccess graphic in your pc

    I/O Port
    a port to do input output

    4.
    Windows = most popular operating system, everyone who use computer know it

    Mac = operating system maded by apple, exclusive in Mac product

    Linux = an awesome operating system with a lot of variant distro

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  38. Nama : gilang arfiansyah
    Npm : 12115896
    Kelas : 2ka15

    Jawaban :
    5 . perbedaan antara RAM DAN ROM dan berikan contoh process ?
    Jawab :
    RAM tidak akan menyimpan data, ketika tidak ada daya. Hal itulah yang menyebabkan data yang ada pada RAM secara otomatis akan hilang, jika tidak terdapat daya.
    ROM tidak dapat diisi atau di tulisi data sewaktu. Pada umumnya ROM digunakan juga untuk firmware yaitu perangkat lunak yang berhubungan dengan perankat keras pada komputer. Contohnya adalah ROM BIOS yang berisi tentang program dasar sistem komputer.

    2. Apa bagian yg terdapat di CPU dan fungsinya ?
    Jawab :
    Procesor alat berbentuk chip yg cukup kecil untuk berfikir logika dan perintah komputer

    3. Sebutkan 10 bagian yg ada di motherboard ?
    Jawab.
    konektor Power, adalah konektor yang dignakan untuk menerima pemberian daya dari power supply. penggunaan power supply-nya pun berbeda, tergantung konektor power yang dimiliki oleh motherboard, AT / ATX
    Socket Prosesor adalah sebuah slot yang dipakai untuk meletakkan prosesor. jenis socket ini yang akan menentukan prosesor mana yang dapat di pasang pada sebuah motherboard.
    North Bridge Controller, berfungsi mengatur arus data disekitar memori utama, prosesor, front side bus dan AGP Bus serta mengatur power management
    south bridge, komponen yang berfungsi sebagai pengatur kerja periperal seperti I/O port, IDE controler dan PCI Bus
    Socket Memory, adalah komponen yang digunakan untuk menempatkan memori berdasarkan jenis memori yang kompatible dengan motherboard
    konektor Floppy dan IDE, adalah komponen yang brefungsi untuk menghubungkan Floppy dan IDE melalui sebuah kabel Data
    PCI slot, berfungsi untik menempatkan perangkat keras external komputer dengan jenis PCI
    paralel dan serial port. pada dasarnya komponen ini tidak menyatu dengan motherboard, melainkan ada kabel yang menghubungkan komponen tersebut dengan motherboard, hanya saja pada umumnya komponen tersebut sudah dihubungkan oleh vendor pembuatnya, sehingga kita tidak perlu repot untuk mencari slot penghubungnya, paralel port umumnya di gunakan untuk menghubungkan printer jenis DOT Matrix ( printer lama ), sedangkan Serial port sering digunakan untuk menghubungkan mouse, namun juga dapat diguunakan untuk menghubungkan dua buah komputer.
    Baterai CMOS, berfungsi untuk memberikan tenaga pada motherboard untuk menjaga setting program BIOS yang telah ditetapkan.

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  39. M Noor Ilham
    13115938
    2KA15

    1. A. The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms.
    First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time, and it could take days or weeks to set-up a new problem. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts.
    B. Second Generation : Transistors replace vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology.

    4. MAC OS X
    Mac OS X is a purpose-built operating system, consisting of a graphical user interface that sits on top of a UNIX core. Mac OS X is stable, reliable and highly secure, as few virus designers bother to target it. It is described by Apple as the world’s most advanced operating system. Mac OS X provides access to all the popular UNIX command line tools and editors, plus a complete Java development platform. Mac OS X has carved out a niche for itself among artists and graphic designers. The operating system includes various translators -- including one called ColorSync, which tells a Mac how a monitor, printer, scanner or digital camera defines color -- which allow different products to work together. On the downside, Mac OS X is more expensive than some of its competitors and offers fewer software options, particularly industry-specific and computer gaming titles.

    5. A. A ROM chip is used primarily in the start up process of a computer, whereas a RAM chip is used in the normal operations of a computer after starting up and loading the operating system.
    B. Writing data to a ROM chip is a slow process, whereas writing data to a RAM chip is a faster process.
    C. A RAM chip can store multiple gigabytes (GB) of data, up to 16 GB or more per chip. A ROM chip typically stores only several megabytes (MB) of data, up to 4 MB or more per chip.

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  40. essam(12115279) 2ka15
    10 components in motherboards and its functions
    •cpu

    the CPU is the computer's brain. It is responsible for fetching, decoding, and executing program instructions as well as performing mathematical and logical calculations.
    •bios
    BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System

    •the northbridge chipset
    The NorthBridge (also called the memory controller) is in charge of controlling transfers between the processor and the RAM

    •The SouthBridge chipset
    The SouthBridge (also called the input/output controller or expansion controller) handles communications between slower peripheral devices.

    •jumper pins
    jumper pins are small protruding pins on the motherboard.
    •Jumper caps are metal bridges that close an electrical circuit
    •DIP (Dual In-line Package) switches are small electronic switches found on the circuit board that can be turned on or off just like a normal switch.
    * pci slots
    PCI is the most common expansion bus in a PC and other hardware platforms. B
    * cache memory
    Cache memory is a small block of high-speed memory (RAM) that enhances PC performance by pre-loading information from the (relatively slow) main memory and passing it to the processor on demand.
    The CMOS RAM is used to store basic Information about the PC’s configuration for instance


    What the difference of RAM with ROM and Give examples of Proccess?

    RAM stands for Random Access Memory and rom stands for read only memory

    Mention of operating system on the computer and explain their respective strengths?

    windows : very familiar and easy to use most computer in many brands uses windows
    ios: os that is very simple and made from linux base which means the os runs very smooth


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  41. Muhamad Lutfi
    2KA15
    14115398

    1. What Characteristic traits of first and second generation computers and explain that?

    Answere:

    FIRST GENERATION OF COMPUTERS
    CHARACTERISTICS
    1) First generation computers were based on vacuum tubes.
    2) The operating systems of the first generation computers were very slow.
    3) They were very large in size.
    4) Production of the heat was in large amount in first generation computers.
    5) Machine language was used for programming.
    6) First generation computers were unreliable.
    7) They were difficult to program and use.

    SECOND GENERATION COMPUTERS
    CHARACTERISTICS
    1) Transistors were used in place of vacuum tubes.
    2) Second generation computers were smaller in comparison with the first generation computers.
    3) They were faster in comparison with the first generation computers.
    4) They generated less heat and were less prone to failure.
    5) They took comparatively less computational time.
    6) Assembly language was used for programming.
    7) Second generation computers has faster input/output devices.

    3. Mentioned 10 parts contained in Motherboard and explain their function?

    Answere :

    1. PCI Slots

    PCI: Peripheral Component Interconnect
    Slot for older expansion cards such as sound cards, network cards, connector cards. See image below for a close-up view. Have been largely replaced by PCI-Express x1 slots (see motherboard parts #3 below).

    2. PCI Express x1 Slots

    Slot for modern expansion cards such as sound cards, network cards (Wi-Fi, Ethernet, Bluetooth), connector cards (USB, FireWire, eSATA) and certain low-end graphics cards. See image below for a close-up view.

    3. PCI Express x16 Slot

    Slot for discrete graphic cards and high bandwidth devices such as top-end solid state drives. See image below for a close-up view.

    4. Northbridge

    Also known as Memory Controller Hub (MCH).
    Chipset that allows the CPU to communicate with the RAM and graphics card.
    Beginning from Intel Sandy Bridge in 2011, this motherboard component is no longer present as it has been integrated within the CPU itself.

    5. CPU Socket

    Insert CPU here. To learn how to install a CPU, click here for our guide to installing a CPU.

    6. ATX 12V Power Connector

    Connects to the 4-pin power cable of a power supply unit which supplies power to the CPU.

    7. IDE Connector

    Connects to older hard drive disks and optical drives for data transfer.

    8. CMOS Battery

    Supplies power to store BIOS settings and keep the real-time clock running.
    The CMOS battery found on most motherboards is the CR2032 lithium coin cell.

    9. Southbridge

    Also known as the Input/Output Controller Hub (ICH).
    Chipset that allows the CPU to communicate with PCI slots, PCI-Express x 1 slots (expansion cards), SATA connectors (hard drives, optical drives), USB ports (USB devices), Ethernet ports and on-board audio.

    10. SATA Connectors

    Connects to modern hard disk drives, solid state drives and optical drives for data transfer.



    5. What the difference of RAM with ROM and Give examples of Proccess?

    Answere :

    RAM is Random Access Memory.
    ROM is Read Only Memory.
    RAM is the memory available for the operating system, programs and processes to use when the computer is running.
    ROM is the memory that comes with your computer that is pre-written to hold the instructions for booting-up the computer.
    RAM requires a flow of electricity to retain data (e.g. the computer powered on).
    ROM will retain data without the flow of electricity (e.g. when computer is powered off).
    RAM is a type of volatile memory. Data in RAM is not permanently written. When you power off your computer the data stored in RAM is deleted.
    ROM is a type of non- volatile memory. Data in ROM is permanently written and is not erased when you power off your computer.

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  42. Nama : Raychan muhammad aziz
    Npm : 17115789
    Kelas : 2ka15

    1. What characteristic between first and second computer generation?

    Answer :
    First Generations :
    1. Based on vacuum tubes
    2. The operating systems is very slow
    3. There were very large in size
    4. Unrelieble
    5. Difficult to program and use

    Second generations :
    1. Replace the vacuum tubes with transistors
    2. Smaller than the first generation
    3. Faster than the first generation
    4. Fastet input and output device
    5. Using assemnly language for programming
    6. Less computational time

    4. Mention of operating system on the computer and explain their respective strengths?
    Answer:
    1. Windows 7 has faster booting and shut down delay time than windows vista
    2. System search is much faster
    3. Low battery consumtion
    4. There is new feature of device storage that you can configure
    5. Supporting multi touchscreen

    5. What the difference between RAM and ROM?
    ANSWER :
    1. A ROM chip is used primarily in the start up process of a computer
    2. Writing data in ROM is slower than RAM
    3. RAM chip can store several gygabytes, but ROM has only 4 Megabytes

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  43. Rizqi Raditya
    17115689
    2KA15

    2. What a parts contained in CPU and Explain their function?
    ANSWER :
    -Motherboard : This is where the core components of your computer reside which are listed below. Also the support cards for video, sound, networking and more are mounted into this board.
    -Hard disk drive : This is where your files are permanently stored on your computer. Also, normally, your operating system is installed here.
    -CD-ROM drive : This is normally a read only drive where files are permanently stored. There are now read/write CD-ROM drives that use special software to allow users to read from and write to these drives.

    3. Mentioned 10 parts contained in Motherboard and explain their function?
    ANSWER:
    -CPU :It is responsible for fetching, decoding, and executing program instructions as well as performing mathematical and logical calculations.
    -RAM : RAM, usually refers to computer chips that temporarily store dynamic data to enhance computer performance while you are working.
    -BIOS : The system BIOS is a ROM chip on the motherboard used during the startup routine (boot process) to check out the system and prepare to run the hardware.
    -CMOS ROM : This prevents reconfiguration when the PC is powered on.
    -Cache Memory : Cache memory is a small block of high-speed memory (RAM) that enhances PC performance by pre-loading information from the (relatively slow) main memory and passing it to the processor on demand.
    -Cache Memory : Cache memory is a small block of high-speed memory (RAM) that enhances PC performance by pre-loading information from the (relatively slow) main memory and passing it to the processor on demand.
    -Expansion BUS : Expansion buses enhance the PCs capabilities by allowing users to add missing features in their computers by slotting adapter cards into expansion slots.
    -Chipset : A chipset also controls data flow to and from hard disks and other devices connected to the IDE channels.
    -CPU Clock : The CPU clock synchronizes the operation of all parts of the PC and provides the basic timing signal for the CPU.
    -Jumpers : A jumper cap or bridge is used to connect or short a pair of jumper pins.

    5. What the difference of RAM with ROM and Give examples of Proccess?
    ANSWER :
    There is one major difference between a ROM and a RAM chip. A ROM chip is non-volatile storage and does not require a constant source of power to retain information stored on it. When power is lost or turned off, a ROM chip will keep the information stored on it. In contrast, a RAM chip is volatile and requires a constant source of power to retain information. When power is lost or turned off, a RAM chip will lose the information stored on it.

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  44. Nama : Rizky Wahyu Dwi Candra
    NPM : 16115202
    Kelas : 2KA15

    5. RAM (Random Acces Memory) : Tempat penyimpanan untuk sementara pada saat program dijalankan. Contoh : SIMMs,DIMMs
    ROM (Read Only Memory): untuk menyimpan data secara tetap/permanent sesuai dengan namanya yg di simpan di ROM.
    Perbedaan nya : RAM bisa di tulis dan dibaca sedangkan ROM tidak
    3. - slot memory : tempat memasang RAM
    - CPU shocket : untuk memasang prosesor
    - slot agp dan pci : tempat pemasangan VGA card dan graphic card
    - bios : tempat mengontrol perangkat keras yg terpasang pada komputer
    - battery cmos : untuk memberi daya pada bios
    - power connector : menghubungkan motherboard dan power supply
    - i/o ports : tempat lan , kabel , dll
    - slot pci : untuk memasang berbagai perhiperal tambahan
    1. Generasi pertama :
    - Sirkuit menggunakan vacum tube atau tabung hampa udara.
    - Memerlukan daya listrik yang sangat besar.
    - Banyak mengeluarkan panas sehingga butuh alatpendingin (AC) yang banyak.
    - Prosesnya relatif lambat.
    Generasi kedua :
    - Sirkuitnya menggunakan transistor sebagai penguat sinyal
    - Program dibuat dengan bahasa tingkat tinggi seperti FORTRAN dan COBOL
    - Kapasitas memori sudah cukup besar dengan pengembangan magnetic core storage

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  45. Komentar ini telah dihapus oleh pengarang.

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  46. Dodi putra
    2KA15
    12115004
    5.. What the difference of RAM with ROM and Give examples of Proccess?
    RAM:adalah penyimpanan untuk sementara dan akan terhapus saat komputer mati
    ROM:adalah penyimpanan yang permanen dan tak akan terhapus ketika komputer mati

    2. What a parts contained in CPU and Explain their function?
    Motherboard : papan untuk manaruh komponen komputer lainnya
    Prosesor : adalah chip yg berguna untuk proses fikir dan logika perintah dari komputer
    RAM : menampung data yang telah terproses oleh prosesor
    Vga : perangkat untuk memproses data grafis sebelum di tampilkan di monitor
    Sound card : perangkat yang memproses audio di pc
    Hard disk : tempat penyimpanan data yang ada pada komputer
    Power suply : bagian yang berfungsi untuk mengalirkan listrik kepada komponen2 komputer
    Optical disk drive : merupakan alat untuk membaca cd/dvd

    3. Mentioned 10 parts contained in Motherboard and explain their
    Socket prosessor : tempat untuk memasang prosesor

    Slot memory : tempat untuk memasang memory

    Slot IDE dan Slot SATA : slot ini berbeda bentuknya tetapi fungsinya sama untuk penghubung hardisn atau cd-rom

    Slot AGP : untuk tempat memasang vga card

    Slot pci : slot ini di gunakan untuk memasang berbagai macam peripheral tambahan

    Bios : sebuab chip yang fungsinya pengontrol perangkat keras yang terpasang di komputer

    Battery cmos : battery kecil yang di gunakan untuk memberi daya pada bios

    Power connector : menghubungkan motherboard dengan power suply

    I/o port : kumpulanport sebagai input maupun output data komputer

    Pin kabel : berbentuk jarum jarum yg di gunakan untuk memasang tombol power,restart,led power dan led harddisk

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  47. Komentar ini telah dihapus oleh pengarang.

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  48. 2. Bagian CPU dan fungsinya :

    - Casing

    Berfungsi sebagai tempat kita meletakkan atau menempelkan motherboard, power supply, optical disc drive, hard disk, dan lain sebagainyaMelindungi berbagai komponen di dalamnya dari debu, panas, air, atau kotoran lainnya pada saat bekerja Casing juga menjadi penting karena hampir semua periferal macam motherboard, CD-ROM drive, harddisk, dan floppy drive menggunakan casing ini sebagai tempat dudukannya alias tempat bekerjanya sehari-hari.

    - Motherboard

    Motherboard berfungsi untuk menghubungkan setiap komponen-komponen komputer tersebut agar bisa saling berkomunikasi satu sama lain. Setiap motherboard memiliki spesifikasi-nya masing-masing, spesifikasi seperti processor apa yang didukungnya dan berapa kapasitas maksimal RAM yang didukung oleh motherboard tersebut.

    - Processor

    merupakan sebuah alat berbentuk chip kecil yang berguna untuk proses berfikir dan logika dari penjalanan sebuah perintah komputer. Semakin tinggi kecepatan prosessor maka, semakin cepat komputer dalam memproses berbagai macam data. Itupun tentunya harus didukung dengan RAM dan Harddisk yang besar.

    - RAM

    Memori (RAM), Cache, dan Chipset bekerja bersama untuk mengaktifkan fungsi komputer.

    - VGA

    VGA (Video Graphic Adapter) atau kartu grafis adalah perangkat keras komputer yang berfungsi sebagai pengolah data grafis sebelum ditampilkan ke monitor.





    3. Bagian Motherboard dan fungsinya :

    - sessor / CPU Socket

    Socket Prosessor merupakan tempat dimana prosessor terpasang. Kalau dilihat secara fisik, area dari socket prosessor ini selalu dikelilingi oleh 4 lubang untuk penyangga Heatsink Fun, karena Prosessor sangat memerlukan penghantar panas saat bekerja.

    -  4 / 8 pin power Processor

    Bagian motherboard ni berfungsi menyalurkan daya pada prosesor, penggunaan 4 / 8 pin tergantung dari jenis motherboardnya sendiri dan daya yang dibutuhkan prosesor (TDP). 4 pin = 95 watt dan 8 pin = 125 watt.

    - CPU Fan Connection ( kipas headsing processor )

    Port satu ini berperan menghidupkan kipas pendingin processor (hsf).

    - Slot RAM

    Bagian motherboard untuk meletakan RAM. Terdapat beberapa jenis slot RAM diantaranya SD RAM, DDR, DDR2 , slot DDR3 dan kapasitasnya pun berbeda-beda ada 8gb, 16gb, 32gb tergantung dari mobo itu sendiri.

    - Antarmuka IDE Primer dan Sekunder

    Disebut juga sebagai konektor IDE atau konektor PATA. IDE adalah kependekan dari Integrated Device Electronics, yang mendukung perangkat IDE, seperti Hard disk dan CD / DVD drive. Perlu diketahui ini adalah model jadul dengan ciri-ciri kabel data nya  berbentuk lebar serta tipis.
    5. Perbedaan RAM dan ROM :

    1. RAM bisa ditulis dan di baca, Tapi ROM tidak.

    2. Penyimpanan data pada RAM bisa dilakukan dengan

    mudah dan Menyimpan data pada ROM tidak dapat

    dilakukan dengan mudah.

    3. Pengisian data pada RAM diisi oleh pengguna. Dan

    program / data yang ada dalam ROM ini diisi oleh pabrik

    yang membuatnya.

    4. RAM digunakan untuk menyimpan perintah atau data

    secara "tidak tetap" (bisa hilang karena komputer mati)

    dan ROM sebaliknya.

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  49. Abdurrahman
    17115610
    2KA15

    2.
    A. Cpu/processor : where's the processing is processed by alu, cu, and cache memory
    B. Ram : place to store data impermanently, needed for processing
    C. Psu : supplying power to all hardware
    D. HDD : place where data permanently store
    E. Cd rom : to burn a disk and read data from it
    F. Vga (expansion) : to process the visual data and output it to monitor
    G. Sound card (expansion): to process sound data and output it to speaker
    H. Heatsink/fan : to release the heat from components
    I. Motherboard : place to attach all components so it can connected and do thing as one piece
    J. Modem/lan card (expansion): to help the computer to connect to another computer and make a connection to talk to each other

    3. CD-ROM, it functions to read any data that has been burnt into CD/DVD.
    HDD, it functions as the storage of all of the datas in computer.
    RAM, is a graphic card which functions to store data that has been processed by the processor.
    Processor, a small chip that functions as a thinker or processor all the commands that are accepted by CPU.
    I/O ports, his is located in the rear panel of the CPU, this use to connect the outside hardware or peripherals of the computer.
    BIOS, is a set of a program stored in CMOS IC, use to preserve the BIOS configuration of the computer.
    Sound card, it functions to receive digital signals from the computer then produce it into sonic signals.
    VGA, is a component which functions to process graphics data and display it to the monitor.
    PCI ports, slot for older expansion cards such as sound cards, network cards, connector cards.
    Northbridge, chipset that allows the CPU to communicate with the RAM and graphics card.

    5. Ram : store data impermanently, so after the loss of power the data will be erased, mainly used to store data for processed by processor ex : ddr1 to ddr4, gddr for graphic use
    Rom : another type of memory that store the data permanently, mainly used for storing bios and bios setting ex : emmc, eufi, etc

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  50. Diana Aulia Apriani
    2ka15
    11115853

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  51. 5.The most common type of programmable ROM chip in a computer is the BIOS (basic input/output system), which is responsible for testing and powering up any hardware. It will then locate the operating system, load it and give it control of the computer's systems. RAM is generally in the form of a chip, while ROM is composed of magnetic tapes. RAM is also significantly larger and more expensive than the equivalent amount of ROM. There are two types of RAM: statistic RAM (SRAM) and dynamic RAM (DRAM). The three types of ROM are: PROM (programmable read-only memory), EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory) and EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read only memory). The oldest form of ROM dates back to 1932.

    3.

    1. PCI Slots


    PCI: Peripheral Component Interconnect

    Slot for older expansion cards such as sound cards, network cards, connector cards. See image below for a close-up view.

    Have been largely replaced by PCI-Express x1 slots (see motherboard parts #3 below).
    2. PCI Express x1 Slots Slot for modern expansion cards such as sound cards, network cards (Wi-Fi, Ethernet, Bluetooth), connector cards (USB, FireWire, eSATA) and certain low-end graphics cards. See image below for a close-up view.
    3. PCI Express x16 Slot Slot for discrete graphic cards and high bandwidth devices such as top-end solid state drives. See image below for a close-up view.
    4. Northbridge Also known as Memory Controller Hub (MCH).

    Chipset that allows the CPU to communicate with the RAM and graphics card.

    Beginning from Intel Sandy Bridge in 2011, this motherboard component is no longer present as it has been integrated within the CPU itself.
    5. CPU Socket Insert CPU here. To learn how to install a CPU
    6. ATX 12V Power Connector Connects to the 4-pin power cable of a power supply unit which supplies power to the CPU.
    7. Front Panel USB 2.0 Connectors Connects to USB 2.0 ports at the front or top of a computer case. See image above for a close-up view.
    8. Front Panel Connectors Connects to the power switch, reset switch, power LED, hard drive LED and front audio ports of a computer case. See image above for a close-up view
    9. IDE Connector Connects to older hard drive disks and optical drives for data transfer. See image above for a close-up view
    10. SATA Connectors


    Connects to modern hard disk drives, solid state drives and optical drives for data transfer. See image above for a close-up view.
    2.
    1. Casing

    Casing adalah bagian terluar dari CPU. Berfungsi untuk menutupi dan melindungi komponen-komponen lain dari kotoran debu selain itu juga berfungsi sebagai tempat dudukan komponen lain seperti motherboard,CD-ROM drive, harddisk, dan floppy drive dll.
    2. Processor

    Prosessor Adalah Otak Dari Semua Proses Yang Ada Di Komputer. Semakin tinggi kecepatan prosessor maka, semakin cepat komputer dalam memproses berbagai macam data.
    3. RAM

    RAM (Random Access Memory). Berfungsi menampung data yang telah terproses oleh processor.
    Juga Berfungsi Menyimpan Data Sementara Selama Komputer Dalam Keadaan Hidup.
    Satuan Memori Biasanya Menggunakan Byte,Kapasitas Memori Yang Ada Di Pasaran Yaitu :
    64 Mb,128 Mb,256 Mb,512 Mb,1 GB,2 GB,4 GB Dan 8 GB
    4. VGA Card

    VGA( Video Graphic Editor), adalah sebuah komponen yg berfungsi untuk mengolah data grafis dan menampilkannya ke monitor.
    5. Hardisk

    Harddisk adalah tempat penyimpanan data yang ada di dalam komputer. Semakin besar kapasitas harddisk, semakin bayak pula data-data yang dapat disimpan. Satuan kapsitas harddisk adalah byte.

    ALVIN NURUL FIKRI
    10115581
    2ka15


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  52. Komentar ini telah dihapus oleh pengarang.

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  53. Nama : Najiha Brilianti
    NPM : 14115959
    Kelas : 2KA01

    5. What the difference of RAM with ROM and Give examples of Proccess?
    Answer :
    A. A ROM chip is used primarily in the start up process of a computer, whereas a RAM chip is used in the normal operations of a computer after starting up and loading the operating system.
    B. Writing data to a ROM chip is a slow process, whereas writing data to a RAM chip is a faster process.
    C. A RAM chip can store multiple gigabytes (GB) of data, up to 16 GB or more per chip. A ROM chip typically stores only several megabytes (MB) of data, up to 4 MB or more per chip.
    Examples:
    ROM : A good example of ROM in the computer is the computer BIOS, a PROM chip that stores the programming needed to begin the initial computer start up process.
    RAM : RAM chips are also used in computers, as well as other devices, to store information and run programs on the computer because RAM is one of the fastest types of memory in your computer.
    2. What a parts contained in CPU and Explain their function?

    Answer:
    A. RAM(Random Acces Memmory)
    also known as the computer’s system memory. It needs power to be read; hence, when a computer turns off, the memory is lost.
    B. HardDisk Srive
    the main storage device of a computer. It uses uses disks that are made of aluminum or glass to store information.
    C. Microprocessor
    the central processing unit of the computer which provides computation control.
    D. CD ROM
    CD ROM reads information from a CD. However, it is not capable of writing informatioin on the CD.
    E. Floppy Drive
    store and read data on a removable floppy disk.
    F. Video Card
    an expansion card that is connected to the motherboard
    G. LAN Card
    Network Interface Card is also an expansion card. Also known as the modem, it helps the computer to connect to another computer on a Network.
    H. Motherboard
    the computer’s circuit board where all the ‘inside parts’ are connected. It contains the microprocessor; important computing components; different types of memory chips; mouse, keyboard, and monitor control circuitry; and logic chips that control various parts of the computer’s function.

    3. Mentioned 10 parts contained in Motherboard and explain their function?

    Answer :
    A. Also known as microprocessor or processor, the CPU is the computer's brain
    B. Random Access Memmory, or RAM, ususaly refers to computer chips that temporarily store dynamic data to enhance computer performance while you are working
    C. BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System, BIOS is "read-only" memory.
    D. Motherboards also include a small separate block of memory made from CMOS RAM chips which is kept alive by batteryeven the PC is off.
    E. Cache Memory is a small block of high-speed memory that enhance PC performance by pre-loading information from themainmemory nad passing it to the processor on demanf.
    F. PCI is the most common eexpansion bus in a PC and other hardware platforms.
    G. A chipset is a group is a small circuits that coordinate the flow of data and from PC's key components.
    H. The NorthBridge is in charge of controlling transfer between the processor and the RAM.
    I. The SouthBridge handles communications between slower peripheral devices.
    J. DIP switches are small electronic switches found on the circuit board that can be turned on o off just like a normal switch.

    NB : "(Coach tadi jiha di kelas udah ngerjain quisnya terus kata coach udah ada cuman pas di jiha cek lagi barusan commentnya enggak ada jadi jiha tulis ulang lagi buat mastiin kalo jiha tadi udah ngerjainm, tadi keterangannya jam 22.21)"

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  54. Nama : Najiha Brilianti
    NPM : 14115959
    Kelas : 2KA01

    5. What the difference of RAM with ROM and Give examples of Proccess?
    Answer :
    A. A ROM chip is used primarily in the start up process of a computer, whereas a RAM chip is used in the normal operations of a computer after starting up and loading the operating system.
    B. Writing data to a ROM chip is a slow process, whereas writing data to a RAM chip is a faster process.
    C. A RAM chip can store multiple gigabytes (GB) of data, up to 16 GB or more per chip. A ROM chip typically stores only several megabytes (MB) of data, up to 4 MB or more per chip.
    Examples:
    ROM : A good example of ROM in the computer is the computer BIOS, a PROM chip that stores the programming needed to begin the initial computer start up process.
    RAM : RAM chips are also used in computers, as well as other devices, to store information and run programs on the computer because RAM is one of the fastest types of memory in your computer.
    2. What a parts contained in CPU and Explain their function?

    Answer:
    A. RAM(Random Acces Memmory)
    also known as the computer’s system memory. It needs power to be read; hence, when a computer turns off, the memory is lost.
    B. HardDisk Srive
    the main storage device of a computer. It uses uses disks that are made of aluminum or glass to store information.
    C. Microprocessor
    the central processing unit of the computer which provides computation control.
    D. CD ROM
    CD ROM reads information from a CD. However, it is not capable of writing informatioin on the CD.
    E. Floppy Drive
    store and read data on a removable floppy disk.
    F. Video Card
    an expansion card that is connected to the motherboard
    G. LAN Card
    Network Interface Card is also an expansion card. Also known as the modem, it helps the computer to connect to another computer on a Network.
    H. Motherboard
    the computer’s circuit board where all the ‘inside parts’ are connected. It contains the microprocessor; important computing components; different types of memory chips; mouse, keyboard, and monitor control circuitry; and logic chips that control various parts of the computer’s function.

    3. Mentioned 10 parts contained in Motherboard and explain their function?

    Answer :
    A. Also known as microprocessor or processor, the CPU is the computer's brain
    B. Random Access Memmory, or RAM, ususaly refers to computer chips that temporarily store dynamic data to enhance computer performance while you are working
    C. BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System, BIOS is "read-only" memory.
    D. Motherboards also include a small separate block of memory made from CMOS RAM chips which is kept alive by batteryeven the PC is off.
    E. Cache Memory is a small block of high-speed memory that enhance PC performance by pre-loading information from themainmemory nad passing it to the processor on demanf.
    F. PCI is the most common eexpansion bus in a PC and other hardware platforms.
    G. A chipset is a group is a small circuits that coordinate the flow of data and from PC's key components.
    H. The NorthBridge is in charge of controlling transfer between the processor and the RAM.
    I. The SouthBridge handles communications between slower peripheral devices.
    J. DIP switches are small electronic switches found on the circuit board that can be turned on o off just like a normal switch.

    NB : "(Coach tadi jiha di kelas udah ngerjain quisnya terus kata coach udah ada cuman pas di jiha cek lagi barusan commentnya enggak ada jadi jiha tulis ulang lagi buat mastiin kalo jiha tadi udah ngerjainm, tadi keterangannya jam 22.21)"

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  55. BAGI YANG TIDAK ADA JAWABAN NILAI NOL

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  56. Aldi Prasetyo
    10115466
    2ka01

    No 1.
    Characteristics of computer first generation are :
    1) First generation computers were based on vacuum tubes.
    2) The operating systems of the first generation computers were very slow.
    3) They were very large in size.
    4) Production of the heat was in large amount in first generation computers.
    5) Machine language was used for programming.
    6) First generation computers were unreliable.
    7) They were difficult to program and use.
    Characteristics of computer second generation are :
    1) Transistors were used in place of vacuum tubes.
    2) Second generation computers were smaller in comparison with the first generation computers.
    3) They were faster in comparison with the first generation computers.
    4) They generated less heat and were less prone to failure.
    5) They took comparatively less computational time.
    6) Assembly language was used for programming.
    7) Second generation computers has faster input/output devices.
    No. 2
    Ram
    Random Access Memory is also known as the computer’s system memory. It needs power to be read; hence, when a computer turns off, the memory is lost.

    Hard Disk Drive
    Hard disk drive is the main storage device of a computer. It uses uses disks that are made of aluminum or glass to store information. Hard drives are measured in gigabytes. Sometimes a special cache is used for quick retrieval of often-used information (such as web pages).

    Microprocessor
    Microprocessor functions as the central processing unit of the computer which provides computation control. Its speed is measured in megahertz. It holds info about the operating system of the computer.

    CD-ROM
    Compact Disk Read-Only Memory is collectively known as CD ROM. With the help of laser optics technology, CD ROM reads information from a CD. However, it is not capable of writing informatioin on the CD.

    Floppy Disk Drive
    Floppy disk drive helps store and read data on a removable floppy disk.

    Video Card
    Video Card is an expansion card that is connected to the motherboard. It serves as the visual link between the user and its computer, allowing the user to view and manage the computer’s software data.

    LAN Card
    A LAN Card or Network Interface Card is also an expansion card. Also known as the modem, it helps the computer to connect to another computer on a Network.

    Motherboard
    The Motherboard is the computer’s circuit board where all the ‘inside parts’ are connected. It contains the microprocessor; important computing components; different types of memory chips; mouse, keyboard, and monitor control circuitry; and logic chips that control various parts of the computer’s function.
    No. 3
    1. Back Panel Connectors & Ports
    Connectors and ports for connecting the computer to external devices such as display ports, audio ports, USB ports, Ethernet ports, PS/2 ports etc.

    2. PCI Slots
    PCI: Peripheral Component Interconnect
    Slot for older expansion cards such as sound cards, network cards, connector cards.

    3. PCI Express x1 Slots
    Slot for modern expansion cards such as sound cards, network cards (Wi-Fi, Ethernet, Bluetooth), connector cards (USB, FireWire, eSATA) and certain low-end graphics cards.

    4. PCI Express x16 Slot
    Slot for discrete graphic cards and high bandwidth devices such as top-end solid state drives.

    5. Northbridge
    Also known as Memory Controller Hub (MCH).
    Chipset that allows the CPU to communicate with the RAM and graphics card.

    6. CPU Socket
    Insert CPU here.

    7. ATX 12V Power Connector
    Connects to the 4-pin power cable of a power supply unit which supplies power to the CPU.

    8. Front Panel USB 2.0 Connectors
    Connects to USB 2.0 ports at the front or top of a computer case.

    9. Front Panel Connectors
    Connects to the power switch, reset switch, power LED, hard drive LED and front audio ports of a computer case.

    10. IDE Connector
    Connects to older hard drive disks and optical drives for data transfer.

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